304 / 304L stainless steel plates

304 and 304L stainless steel plates are part of the austenitic family of stainless steel and they are one of the most versatile and widely used varieties of stainless plate. They are a relatively low cost stainless product and used in a variety of applications. 304 grades have excellent low temperature properties and respond well to hardening by cold working. 304 stainless steel plate grades have good welding characteristics and post weld annealing is not normally required to restore performance. 304 SS plates have excellent corrosion resistance in a variety of different media. Typical specifications for 304 and 304L ss plates are ASTM A-240, ASME SA -240 and A666.

304/304L is used almost exclusively for parts requiring machining, welding, grinding, or polishing where good corrosion resistance is also required. It is a good general all-purpose stainless grade. Good in corrosive environments as in paper and chemical industries and cryogenic services. Used where corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties are primary requirements. 304/304L is widely accepted in such industries as dairy, beverage, and other food industries where the highest degree of sanitation and cleanliness is of prime importance. Parts for handling acetic, nitric, and citric acids, organic and inorganic chemicals, dyestuffs, crude and refined oils, etc., are fabricated from this material. Because of its lack of magnetism it is highly desirable for instruments. It is also widely used for architectural trim. 304 plate is used in applications where corrosion resistance is required, but elevated temperatures are not involved. 304/304L finds particular use in applications requiring welding. 304/304L has good drawing, forming, and stamping properties.

Services for 304 Plate
In today’s competitive market, reducing lead times associated with materials acquisition and machining can boost throughput and improve profitability. We strive to help customers streamline their supply chain with a full suite of value-added services. Our capabilities include:

  • Blanchard grinding
  • Double-disc grinding
  • Duplex milling
  • Bridge milling
  • Waterjet cutting

APPLICATIONS OF 304 STAINLESS STEEL PLATES

  • Alloy 304 Stainless Steel is used in a wide variety of home and commercial applications, including:
  • Kitchen benches, sinks, troughs, equipment, and appliances
  • Chemical containers, including for transport
  • Food processing equipment, particularly in beer brewing, milk processing, and wine making
  • Heat exchangers
  • Architectural trim and molding
  • Woven or welded screens for mining, quarrying & water filtration
  • Automotive and aerospace structural use
  • Nuts, bolts, screws, and other fasteners in the marine environment
  • Construction material in large buildings
  • Dyeing industry

Typical Chemical Requirements

304 304L
Carbon, Max % 0.07 0.03
Manganese, Max % 2 2
Phosphorus, Max % 0.045 0.045
Sulphur, Max % 0.03 0.03
Silicon Max 0.75 0.75
Chromium range 17.5-19.5 17.5-19.5
Nickel range 8.0-10.5 8.0 – 12
Nitrogen Max 0.1 0.1

Mechanical Properties

304 304L
Tensile Min 75 ksi 70 ksi
Yield Min 30 ksi 25 ksi
Elongation Min 40% 40%
Hardness Max 95 HRB 95 HRB

Physical Properties:

Density
lbm/in3
Thermal Conductivity
(BTU/h ft. °F)
Electrical
Resistivity
(in x 10-6)
Modulus of
Elasticity
(psi x 106
Coefficient of
Thermal Expansion
(in/in)/
°F x 10-6
Specific Heat
(BTU/lb/
°F)
Melting
Range
(°F)
at 68°F: 0.285 9.4 at 212°F 28.3 at 68°F 28 9.4 at 32 – 212°F 0.1200 at 68°F to 212°F 2500 to 2590
12.4 at 932 °F 39.4 at 752°F 10.2 at 32 – 1000°F
49.6 at 1652 °F 10.4 at 32 – 1500°F

Alloy 304 a T-300 series stainless steel austenitic, which has a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Type 304 has a maximum carbon of 0.07% . It is the standard “18/8 stainless” that is commonly found in pans and cooking tools. Alloy 304 is the most versatile and widely used alloy in the stainless steel family. Ideal for a wide variety of home and commercial applications, Alloy 304 exhibits excellent corrosion resistance and has a high ease of fabrication, outstanding formability. The austenitic stainless steels are also considered to be the most weldable of the high-alloy steels and can be welded by all fusion and resistance welding processes.

Specifications: UNS S30400

Standards:

  • ASTM/ASME: UNS S30400 / S30403
  • EURONORM: 1.4301 / 1.4303
  • AFNOR: Z5 CN 18.09 / Z2 CN 18.10
  • DIN: X5 CrNi 18 10 / X2 CrNi 19 11

Corrosion Resistance:

  • Resistance to moderately aggressive organic acids is a result of the 9 to 11% nickel that the 304 alloys contain.
  • Resistance to corrosion in oxidizing environments is a result of the 18 to 19% chromium that the 304 alloys contain.
  • The 304, 304L, and 304H may be considered to perform uniformly in most corrosive environments.

Heat Resistance:

  • Continuous use of 304 in the 800-1580°F range is not recommended if subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance is important.
  • Good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 1600°F and in continuous service to 1690°F.

Properties of 304 Alloy

Welding Characteristics:

Excellent welding properties; post-weld annealing is not required when welding thin sections. Two important considerations in producing weld joints in the austenitic stainless steels are:

  • avoidance of cracking
  • preservation of corrosion resistance
  • Processing – Hot Forming:
  • To forge, heat uniformity to 2100 / 2300 °F
  • Do not forge below 1700 °F
  • Forging can be air cooled without danger of cracking

Processing – Cold Forming:

  • Its austenitic structure allows it to be deep-drawn without intermediate annealing, Making this the stainless steel grade of choice in the manufacturing of sinks, hollow-ware and saucepans.
  • These grades work harden rapidly. To relieve stresses produced in severe forming or spinning, parts should be full annealed or stress relief annealed as soon as possible after forming.

Machinability:

The use of chip breakers is advised since the chips can be stringy. Stainless steel work harden rapidly, heavy positive feeds, sharp tooling, and a rigid set-up should be used of cut below the work-hardened layer resulting from the previous passes.

Stainless Steel 304 1.4301

Stainless steel 304 and stainless steel 304L are also known as 1.4301 and 1.4307 respectively. Type 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Type 304 stainless steel is an austenitic grade that can be severely deep drawn. This property has resulted in 304 being the dominant grade used in applications like sinks and saucepans. Type 304L is the low carbon version of 304. It is used in heavy gauge components for improved weldability. Some products such as plate and pipe may be available as “dual certified” material that meets the criteria for both 304 and 304L. 304H, a high carbon content variant, is also available for use at high temperatures. Properties given in this data sheet are typical for flat rolled products covered by ASTM A240/A240M. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this data sheet.

Application

  • Saucepans
  • Springs, screws, nuts & bolts
  • Sinks & splash backs
  • Architectural panelling
  • Tubing
  • Brewery, food, dairy and pharmaceutical production equipment
  • Sanitary ware and troughs
  • Supplied Forms
  • Sheet
  • Strip
  • Bar
  • Plate
  • Pipe
  • Tube
  • Coil
  • Fittings

Alloy Designations
Stainless steel grade 1.4301/304 also corresponds to: S30400, 304S15, 304S16, 304S31 and EN58E.

Corrosion Resistance
304 has excellent corrosion resistance in may environments and when in contact with different corrosive media. Pitting and crevice corrosion can occur in environments containing chlorides. Stress corrosion cracking can occur above 60°C.

Heat Resistance
304 has good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service up to 870°C and in continuous service to 925°C. However, continuous use at 425- 860°C is not recommended. In this instance 304L is recommended due to its resistance to carbide precipitation. Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500°C and up to 800°C grade 304H is recommended. This material will retain aqueous corrosion resistance.

Fabrication
Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.

Cold Working
304 stainless steel readily work hardens. Fabrication methods involving cold working may require an intermediate annealing stage to alleviate work hardening and avoid tearing or cracking. At the completion of fabrication a full annealing operation should be employed to reduce internal stresses and optimise corrosion resistance.

Hot Working
Fabrication methods like forging, that involving hot working should occur after uniform heating to 1149-1260°C. The fabricated components should then be rapidly cooled to ensure maximum corrosion resistance.

Machinability
304 has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced by using the following rules: Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening. Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material. Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work. Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.

Chemical Compositionsa)

Element % Present
Carbon (C) 0.07
Chromium (Cr) 17.50 – 19.50
Manganese (Mn) 2.00
Silicon (Si) 1.00
Phosphorous (P) 0.045
Sulphur (S) 0.015b)
Nickel (Ni) 8.00 – 10.50
Nitrogen (N) 0.10
Iron (Fe) Balance

Mechanical properties

Property Value
Comprehensive Strength 210 MPa
Proof Stress 210 Min MPa
Tensile Strength 520 – 720 MPa
Elongation 45 Min%

Physical Properties

Property Value
Density 8,000 Kg/m3
Melting Point 1450 °C
Thermal Expansion 17.2 x 10-6 /K
Modulus of Elasticity 193 GPa
Thermal Conductivity 16.2W/m.K
Electrical Resistivity 0.072 x 10-6 Ω .m

Heat Treatment
304 stainless steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to 1010- 1120°C.

Weldability
Fusion welding performance for type 304 stainless steel is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for stainless steel 304 is grade 308 stainless steel. For 304L the recommended filler is 308L. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. This step is not required for 304L. Grade 321 may be used if post-weld heat treatment is not possible.

Euronorm Nom. AISI / ASTM / UNS
1.4301 X5CrNi18-10 304

1.4301 (304) Bar and Section

  • Stainless steel types 1.4301 and 1.4307 are also known as grades 304 and 304L respectively. Type 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel.
  • Type 304 stainless steel is an austenitic grade that can be severely deep drawn. This property has resulted in 304 being the dominant grade used in applications like sinks and saucepans.
  • Type 304L is the low carbon version of 304. It is used in heavy gauge components for improved weldability. Some products such as plate and pipe may be available as “dual certified” material that meets the criteria for both 304 and 304L.
  • 304H, a high carbon content variant, is also available for use at high temperatures.
  • Property data given in this document is typical for Bar and Section to EN 10088-3:2005. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover products sold. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet.

Stainless Steel 304L 1.4307

Stainless steel 304 and 304L are also known as stainless steel 1.4301 and 1.307 respectively. Type 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Type 304 stainless steel is an austenitic grade that can be severely deep drawn. This property has resulted in 304 being the dominant grade used in applications like sinks and saucepans. Type 304L is the low carbon version of 304. It is used in heavy gauge components for improved weldability. Some products such as plate and pipe may be available as “dual certified” material that meets the criteria for both 304 and 304L. 304H, a high carbon content variant, is also available for use at high temperatures. Property given in this data sheet is typical for flat rolled products covered by ASTM A240/A240M. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this data sheet.

Application

  • Saucepans
  • Springs, screws, nuts & bolts
  • Sinks & splash backs
  • Architectural panelling
  • Tubing
  • Brewery, food, dairy and pharmaceutical production equipment
  • Sanitary ware and troughs
  • Cutlery and flatware

Supplied Forms

  • Sheet
  • Strip
  • Bar
  • Plate
  • Pipe
  • Tube
  • Coil
  • Fittings

Alloy Designations
Stainless steel grade 1.4301/304 also corresponds to: S30400, 304S11 and EN58E.

Corrosion Resistance
304 has excellent corrosion resistance in many environments and when in contact with different corrosive media. Pitting and crevice corrosion can occur in environments containing chlorides. Stress corrosion cracking can occur above 60°C.

Heat Resistance
304 has good heat resistance to oxidation in intermittent service up to 870°C and in continuous service up to 925°C. However, continuous use at 425-860°C is not recommended. In this instance 304L is recommended due to its resistance to carbide precipitation. Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500°C and up to 800°C grade 304H is recommended . this material will retain aqueous corrosion resistance.

Fabrication
Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.

Cold Working
304 stainless steel readily work hardens. Fabrication methods involving cold working may require an intermediate annealing stage to alleviate work hardening and avoid tearing or cracking. At the completion of fabrication a full annealing operation should be employed to reduce internal stresses and optimise corrosion resistance.

Hot Working
Fabrication methods like forging, that involve hot working should occur after uniform heating to 1149-1260°C. The fabricated components should then be rapidly cooled to ensure maximum corrosion resistance.

Machinability
304 has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced by using the following rules: Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening. Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material. Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.

Heat Treatment
304 stainless steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to 1010- 1120°C.

Weldability
Fusion welding performance for type 304 stainless steel is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for stainless steel 304 is grade 308 stainless steel. For 304L the recommended filler is 308L. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. This step is not required for 304L. Grade 321 may be used if post-weld heat treatment is not possible.

Chemical Compositionsa)

Element % Present
Carbon (C) 0.03
Chromium (Cr) 17.50 – 19.50
Manganese (Mn) 2.00
Silicon (Si) 1.00
Phosphorous (P) 0.045
Sulphur (S) 0.015b)
Nickel (Ni) 8.00 – 10.50
Nitrogen (N) 0.10
Iron (Fe) Balance

Mechanical properties

Property Value
Proof Stress 200 Min MPa
Tensile Strength 500 – 700 MPa
Elongation 45 Min%

Physical Properties

Property Value
Density 8.00 Kg/m3
Melting Point 1450 °C
Thermal Expansion 17.2 x 10-6 /K
Modulus of Elasticity 193 GPa
Thermal Conductivity 16.2W/m.K
Electrical Resistivity 0.072 x 10-6 Ω .m
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