316 / 316L stainless steel plates

316 / 316L stainless steel plates are part of the austenitic family of stainless steel and is the most widely used varieties of stainless plate. 316 grades contain a higher level of Nickel than 304 giving it an improved corrosion resistance over 304 grades. 316/316L plate is a good option for marine applications due to a good atmospheric corrosion resistance. 316L is a low carbon modification to 316 grade.

We stocks only dual certified 316/316L grade plate certified to ASTM A240 AND ASME SA240.

Typical Chemical Requirements

Carbon Max 0.03
Manganese Max 2
Phosphorous Max 0.045
Sulfur Max 0.03
Silicon Max 0.75
Chromium Range 16-18
Nickel Range 10-14
Nitrogen Max 0.1
Molybdenum Range 2-3

Mechanical Properties

Tensile Strength Min 70 ksi
Yield Strength Min 25 ksi
Elongation Min 40%
Hardness Min 95 HRB

Physical Properties:

Density
lbm/in3
Thermal Conductivity
(BTU/h ft. °F)
Electrical
Resistivity
(in x 10-6)
Modulus of
Elasticity
(psi x 106
Coefficient of
Thermal Expansion
(in/in)/°F x 10-6
Specific Heat
(BTU/lb/°F)
Melting
Range (°F)
0.29 at 68°F 100.8 at 68 212°F 29.1 at 68°F 29 8.9 at 32 – 212°F 0.108 at 68°F 2500 to 2550
9.7 at 32 – 1000°F 0.116 at 200°F
11.1 at 32 – 1500°F

General Properties

Alloy 316/316L is molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steel. The higher nickel and molybdenum content in this grade allows it to demonstrate better overall corrosion resistant properties than 304, especially with regard to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. In addition, Alloy 316/ 316L provides excellent elevated temperature tensile, creep and stress-rupture strengths, as well as outstanding formability and weldability. 316L is the lower carbon version of 316 and is immune from sensitization; therefore, it is very frequently used in heavy gauge welded components.

Specifications: UNS S31600 / S31603

Applications:

  • Food preparation equipment, especially in chloride environments
  • Chemical processing, equipment
  • Laboratory benches and equipment
  • Rubber, plastics, pulp & paper machinery
  • Pollution control equipment
  • Boat fittings, value and pump trim
  • Heat exchangers
  • Pharmaceutical and textile industries
  • Condensers, evaporators and tanks

Standards:

  • ASTM/ASME: UNS S31600 / S31603
  • EURONORM: X1 CrNiMo 17 12 2 / X3 CrNiMo 17 12 2
  • AFNOR: Z 6 CND 17-11 / Z 2 CND 17-12
  • DIN: 1.4401 / 1.4404

Corrosion Resistance:

  • Generally more resistant than 304 in range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media due to the increased chromium and molybdenum content.
  • Subject to pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments, and to stress corrosion cracking above about 122°F (50°C).
  • Considered resistant to potable water with up to about 1000mg/L chlorides at ambient temperatures, reducing to about 500mg/L at
    140°F (60°C).
  • Usually regarded as the “marine grade stainless steel” – but is not resistant to warm sea water.

Heat Resistance:

  • Good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 1600°F (870°C) and in continuous service to 1700°F (925°C)
  • Grade 316L is more resistant to carbide precipitation.

Welding Characteristics:

  • Excellent weldability by all standard fusion methods, both with and without filler metals.
  • Heavy welded sections in Grade 316 require post-weld annealing for maximum corrosion resistance, this is not required for grade 316L.

Heat Treatment:

  • Annealing temperature range is 1900 to 2100°F (1038 to 1149°C).
  • Cannot be hardened by heat treatment.
  • Special consideration is needed to compensate for a higher coefficient of thermal expansion to avoid warping and distortion.

Processing – Hot Forming:

  • Most producers recommend a maximum forging temperature between 2100°F and 2300°F
  • Do not forge below 1700°F (927°C) Best
  • Corrosion resistance is obtained if the forgings are given a final anneal.

Processing – Cold Forming:

  • 316/316L types being extremely tough and ductile, can be readily cold worked such as roll form, swaging, cold heading, deep drawing, bent, etc., without difficulty
    Severely cold formed parts should be annealed to remove stresses.

Machineability:

  • Type 316/316L is somewhat more difficult to machine than Type 304 because of its toughness.
  • 316/316L machines with chip characteristics that are tough and strong.
  • Chip breakers and curlers are advised.
  • As large a tool as possible and great amounts of cutting fluid should be used.
  • Heavy positive feeds at low speeds should be considered since 316/316L work hardens rapidly.

Typical Applications

316 stainless is used extensively for paper pulp handling equipment, process equipment for producing photographic chemicals, inks, rayon, rubber, textile bleaches and dyestuffs and high temperature equipment. Since 316 has good cold forming and drawing properties, it is an outstanding stainless steel for a large number of applications. Manufactured by the electri-furnace process, 316 meets the exacting standards of the aircraft industry. Widely used in the chemical industry. Used for pumps and pump components, oil rig components, medical instruments, food preparation equipment. Because 316 stainless possesses the highest creep and tensile strengths at elevated temperatures of any of the more commonly used stainless steels, it finds extensive use where the combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures is required.

From heavy rains and massive swells to salty air and corrosive chemicals, maritime and processing environments regularly encounter harsh conditions at sea and onshore. Better protect your application from degradation with high-quality 316 stainless steel plate from us.

316 stainless steel plate is an austenitic alloy with increased nickel and molybdenum content that demonstrates superior corrosion-resistant properties. Additionally, it provides excellent elevated temperature tensile, creep and stress-rupture strength capabilities, as well as outstanding formability and weldability. This material type has lower carbon content than other alloys, making it very popular for heavy-gauge welded applications.

Applications for 316 Plate
Regularly used in coastal areas, marine applications subject to sea sprays, industrial equipment exposed to corrosive chemicals and any area with high chloride exposure, 316 stainless steel plate is commonly called marine-grade material. As the most corrosion-resistant member of the stainless steel family, however, this alloy is ideal for a variety of processes across a wide array of business sectors.

Examples include:

  • Laboratory instruments
  • Rubber and plastic manufacturing processes
  • Boats, ships and oceangoing vessel components
  • Pharmaceutical applications
  • Heat exchangers
  • Chemical processing equipment
  • Marine applications
  • Coastal area structures
  • Liquid processing equipment
  • Condensers, evaporators and tanks
  • Food preparation equipment
  • Architectural accents
  • Aerospace parts

Stainless Steel 316 1.4401

This data sheet applies to stainless steel 316 / 1.4401 hot and cold-rolled sheets/plates and strip, semi-finished products, rods, rolled wire and profiles as well as seamless and welded tubes and pipes for pressure purposes.

Application
Construction encasement, doors, windows and armatures, off-shore technology, cisterns and tubes for chemical tankers, production, warehousing and overland transport of chemicals, food and beverages. Due to the Mo-content, good resistance against media containing chlorides and non-oxidising acids. The resistance to intergranular corrosion is guaranteed for larger product thicknesses in the welded condition.

Chemical Compositionsa)

Element % Present
Carbon (C) 0.07
Silicon (Si) 1.00
Manganese (Mn) 2.00
Phosphorous (P) 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0.0151)
Chromium (Cr) 16.50 – 18.50
Nickel (Ni) 10.00 – 13.00
Nitrogen (N) 0.10
Molybdenum (Mo) 2.00 – 2.50
Iron (Fe) Balance

Reference data on some physical properties

Density at 20°C kg/m3 8.0
Thermal Conductivity W/m K at 20°C 15
Modulus of Elasticity kN/mm2 at 20°C 200
200°C 186
400°C 172
500°C 165
Specific Thermal Capacity at 20°C J/kg K 500
Electrical Resistivity at 20°C Ω mm2/m 0.75

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion 10-6 K-1 between 20°C and

100°C 16.0
200°C 16.5
300°C 17.0
400°C 17.5
500°C 18.0

Processing / Welding
Standard welding processes for this steel grade are:

  • TIG-Welding
  • MAG-Welding Solid Wire
  • Arc Welding (E)
  • Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
  • Laser Beam Welding

When choosing the filler metal, the corrosion stress has to be regarded, as well. The use of a higher alloyed filler metal can be necessary due to the cast structure of the weld metal. A preheating is not necessary for this steel. A heat treatment after welding is normally not usual. Austenitic steels only have 30% of the thermal conductivity of non-alloyed steels. Their fusion point is lower than that of non-alloyed steel therefore austenitic steels have to be welded with lower heat input than non-alloyed steels. To avoid overheating or burn-through of thinner sheets, higher welding speed has to be applied. Copper back-up plates for faster heat rejection are functional, whereas, to avoid cracks in the solder metal, it is not allowed to surface-fuse the copper back up plate. This steel has an extensively higher coefficient of thermal expansion as non-alloyed steel. In connection with a worse thermal conductivity, a greater distortion has to be expected. When welding 1.4401 all procedures, which work against this distortion (eg. back-step sequence welding, welding alternately on opposite sides with double-V butt weld, assignment of two welders when the components are accordingly large) have to be respected notably. For product thicknesses over 12mm the double-V butt weld has to be preferred instead of a single-V butt weld. The included angle should be 60° – 70°, when using MIG-welding about 50° are enough. An accumulation of weld seams should be avoided. Tack welds have to be affixed with relatively shorter distances from each other (significantly shorter than these of non-alloyed steels), in order to prevent strong deformation, shrinking or flaking tack welds. The tacks should be subsequently grinded or at least be free from crater cracks. 1.4401 is very suitable for laser beam welding (weldability A 9in accordance with DVS bulletin 3203, part 3). With a welding groove width smaller 0.3mm respectively 0.1mm product thickness the use of filler metals is not neccessary. With larger welding grooves a similar filler metal can be used. With avoiding oxidation within the seam surface during laser beam wedling by applicable backhand welding, eg. helum as inert gas, the welding seam is as corrosion resistant as the base metal. A hot crack hazard for the welding seam does not exist, when choosing an applicable process. 1.4401 is very suitable for laser beam fusion cutting with nitrogen or flame cutting with oxygen. the cut edges only have small heat affected zones and are generally free of micro cracks and thus are well formable. While choosing an applicable process the fusion cut edges can be converted directly. Especially, they can be welded without any further preparation. While processing only stainless tools like steel brushes, pneumatic picks and so on are allowed, in order to not endanger the passivation. It should be neglected to mark within the welding seam zone with oleigerous bolts or temperature indicating crayons. The high corrosion resistance of this stainless steel is based on the formation of a homogeneous, compact pasisve layer on the surface. Annealing colours, scales, slag residues, tramp iron, spatters and such like have to be removed, in order to not destroy the passive layer. For cleaning the surface the processes brushing, grinding, pickling or blasting (iron-free silica or glass spheres) can be applied. For brushing only stainless steel brushes can be used. Pickling of the previously brushed seam area is carried out by dipping and spraying, however, often pickling pastes or solutions are used. After pickling a carefully flushing with water has to be done.

Remark
In quenched condition the material can be slightly magnetizable. With increasing cold forming the magnetizability increases.

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