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Question about steel pipe & tube

Steel pipes are long, hollow tubes that are used for a variety of purposes. They are produced by two distinct methods which result in either a welded or seamless pipe. In both methods, raw steel is first cast into a more workable starting form. It is then made into a pipe by stretching the steel out into a seamless tube or forcing the edges together and sealing them with a weld. The first methods for producing steel pipe were introduced in the early 1800s, and they have steadily evolved into the modern processes we use today. Each year, millions of tons of steel pipe are produced. Its versatility makes it the most often used product produced by the steel industry.

Pipe vs Tube, 10 basic differences

PIPE vs TUBESTEEL PIPESTEEL TUBE
Key Dimensions (Pipe and Tube Size Chart)The most important dimensions for a pipe is the outer diameter (OD) together with the wall thickness (WT). OD minus 2 times WT (SCHEDULE) determine the inside diameter (ID) of a pipe, which determines the liquid capacity of the pipe. The NPS does not match the true diameter, it is a rough indicationThe most important dimensions for a steel tube are the outside diameter (OD) and the wall thickness (WT). These parameters are expressed in inches or millimeters and express the true dimensional value of the hollow section.
Wall ThicknessThe thickness of a steel pipe is designated with a “Schedule” value (the most common are Sch. 40, Sch. STD., Sch. XS, Sch. XXS). Two pipes of different NPS and same schedule have different wall thicknesses in inches or millimeters.The wall thickness of a steel tube is expressed in inches or millimeters. For tubing, the wall thickness is measured also with a gage nomenclature.
Types of Pipes and Tubes (Shapes)Round onlyRound, rectangular, square, oval
Production rangeExtensive (up to 80 inches and above)A narrower range for tubing (up to 5 inches), larger for steel tubes for mechanical applications
Tolerances (straightness, dimensions, roundness, etc) and Pipe vs. Tube strengthTolerances are set, but rather loose. Strength is not the major concern.Steel tubes are produced to very strict tolerances. Tubulars undergo several dimensional quality checks, such as straightness, roundness, wall thickness, surface, during the manufacturing process. Mechanical strength is a major concern for tubes.
Production ProcessPipes are generally made to stock with highly automated and efficient processes, i.e. pipe mills produce on a continuous basis and feed distributors stock around the world.Tubes manufacturing is more lengthy and laborious
Delivery timeCan be shortGenerally longer
Market priceRelatively lower price per ton than steel tubesHigher due to lower mills productivity per hour, and due to the stricter requirements in terms of tolerances and inspections
MaterialsA wide range of materials is availableTubing is available in carbon steel, low alloy, stainless steel, and nickel-alloys; steel tubes for mechanical applications are mostly of carbon steel
End ConnectionsThe most common are beveled, plain and screwed endsThreaded and grooved ends are available for quicker connections on site

Classification & definition

What is DOM tubing used for?

DOM Round Steel Tube, is a welded mechanical round steel tube with the internal weld seam removed creating a smooth internal surface. DOM round steel tube has been drawn over a mandrel to produce a tube having more exact dimensional accuracy and tolerances, and a very smooth inside and outside finish.

(DOM) Drawn Over Mandrel

Technically, DOM is not a type of steel tube, but rather the process in which the tube is finished. It is considered a high quality tube, and is normally constructed from SAE 1020 or 1026 steel. The first stages of manufacturing are identical to ones used to make electric resistance welded tube, but in the finishing stages the entire flash weld is removed and the tube is cold drawn over a mandrel. The cold drawn process provides the tube with better dimensional tolerances, improved surface finish and the strongest weld strength achievable. DOM is often incorrectly referenced as “seamless tube” when it actually does have a seam (although it is almost invisible).

What is ERW tube?

Electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe is manufactured by cold-forming a sheet of steel into a cylindrical shape. Current is then passed between the two edges of the steel to heat the steel to a point at which the edges are forced together to form a bond without the use of welding filler material.

What does ERW steel mean?

ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) The nomenclature ERW refers to a specific type of welding process that involves both spot and seam welding. Seam welding is commonly used during the manufacturing of round, square and rectangular steel tubing.

What is electric resistance welded pipe?

Electric resistance welding (ERW) refers to a group of welding process such as spot and seam welding that produce coalescence of faying surfaces where heat to form the weld is generated by the electrical resistance of material combined with the time and the force used to hold the materials together during welding.

Is Dom seamless?

The cold drawn process provides the tube with better dimensional tolerances, improved surface finish and the strongest weld strength achievable. DOM is often incorrectly referenced as “seamless tube” when it actually does have a seam (although it is almost invisible).

Seamless Mechanical Tubing

The seamless tube is manufactured using a process called “extrusion”. During this process a solid steel bar is pierced though the centre using a die, turning the solid round into a round tube.

Basically there are two types of seamless tube:

  • Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS) normally made from SAE 1018, having precise tolerances and good surface finish
  • Hot Finished Seamless (HFS) normally made from SAE 1026, having less critical tolerances and a scaly finish – Not as strong as CDS

Benefits of Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS):

Good surface finish – Superior machinability – Increased dimensional tolerances – High strength to weight ratio

Benefits of Hot Finish Seamless (HFS):

Cost effective material – Good Machinability – Wide range of sizes

Metal Supermarkets – Premier Supplier of ERW, DOM and Seamless Tube

Metal Supermarkets is the world’s largest small-quantity metal supplier with over 70 brick-and-mortar stores across the US, Canada, and United Kingdom. We are metal experts and have been providing quality customer service and products since 1985. Visit one of our 60+ locations in North America today.

Round tubes are round, cylindrical shapes that are hollow. Round tubes have a wide variety of structural and architectural applications. Unlike pipes, tubes are measured by their outside diameter and their wall thickness. Some examples of tube applications would be automotive parts, railings and patio furniture. Learn more about the difference between pipes and tubes.

Hot Rolled and Cold Rolled tubing is available in:

  • Electric Resistance Welding (ERW)
  • Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS)
  • Drawn-Over-Mandrel (DOM)
  • Hydraulic
  • Hot Finished

Round Tube can be purchased online and at any Metal Supermarkets location. It can be cut to your exact specifications.

What is the meaning of seamless pipe?

Tubular product made without a welded seam, manufactured in a hot-forming process using an extrusion or drawing process that can be followed by cold sizing or cold finishing to produce the desired shape, dimensions and properties.

Seamless pipe definition

An extruded seamless tube having certain standardized sizes of outside diameter and wall thickness, commonly designated by nominal pipe sizes and American National Standards Institute’s schedule numbers.

  • Tubing manufactured with no visible seams.
  • Wrought steel tubular product made without a weld seam.
  • Seamless tubing is produced via extrusion or rotary piercing.

NOTE: Seamless pipe is manufactured by hot-working steel and, if necessary, by subsequently cold finishing the hot-worked tubular product to produce the desired shape, dimensions and properties.

UOE

UOE is a method used for production of longitudinally welded large diameter pipes.

Longitudinal edges of steel plates are first beveled using carbide milling equipment. Beveled plates are then formed into a U shape using a U-press and subsequently into an O shape using an O-press. UOE pipe fabrication process for welded pipes, expanded. Difference between ERW, DOM and Seamless Tube

This month we take a hard look at the differences between ERW, DOM and Seamless Tube. ERW (Electric Resistance Welded)

The nomenclature ERW refers to a specific type of welding process that involves both spot and seam welding.

Seam welding is commonly used during the manufacturing of round, square and rectangular steel tubing. The steel strip is unwound from coils and side-trimmed to control width and condition the edges for welding. The strip then passes through a series of contoured rollers which cold-form the material into a circular (square or rectangular) shape. The edges are forced together under pressure as a butt joint and then welded by heating the material to temperatures above 2000° F. The flash weld that has formed is now removed from the outside diameter of the tube. Once the weld has been tested the tube then passes through a series of sizing rolls to attain its precise finished size, after which the tube is then straightened and cut to length.

The material used in the manufacturing process is typically SAE 1010. This product is typically available in Cold Rolled steel (CREW) for 0.060” wall and lighter and Hot Rolled steel (HREW) for 0.083” wall and heavier. The product will come in an “as-welded” condition, (often called – flash-in condition) referring to when the flash from the weld is left on the inside of the tubing, it is not normally removed or controlled during the ERW tube production process.

(DOM) Drawn Over Mandrel

Technically, DOM is not a type of steel tube, but rather the process in which the tube is finished. It is considered a high quality tube, and is normally constructed from SAE 1020 or 1026 steel. The first stages of manufacturing are identical to ones used to make electric resistance welded tube, but in the finishing stages the entire flash weld is removed and the tube is cold drawn over a mandrel. The cold drawn process provides the tube with better dimensional tolerances, improved surface finish and the strongest weld strength achievable. DOM is often incorrectly referenced as “seamless tube” when it actually does have a seam (although it is almost invisible).

Seamless Mechanical Tubing

The seamless tube is manufactured using a process called “extrusion”. During this process a solid steel bar is pierced though the centre using a die, turning the solid round into a round tube.

Basically there are two types of seamless tube:

  • Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS) normally made from SAE 1018, having precise tolerances and good surface finish
  • Hot Finished Seamless (HFS) normally made from SAE 1026, having less critical tolerances and a scaly finish – Not as strong as CDS

Benefits of Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS):

  • Good surface finish – Superior machinability – Increased dimensional tolerances – High strength to weight ratio

Benefits of Hot Finish Seamless (HFS):

  • Cost effective material – Good Machinability – Wide range of sizes

Difference between pipes and tubes

This month we take a hard look at the differences between ERW, DOM and Seamless Tube.

People use the words pipe and tube interchangeably, and they think that both are the same. However, there are significant differences between pipe and tube.

The short answer is: A PIPE is a round tubular to distribute fluids and gases, designated by a nominal pipe size (NPS or DN) that represents a rough indication of the pipe conveyance capacity; a TUBE is a round, rectangular, squared or oval hollow section measured by outside diameter (OD) and wall thickness (WT), expressed in inches or millimeters.

What is Pipe?

Pipe is a hollow section with round cross section for the conveyance of products. The products include fluids, gas, pellets, powders and more.

The most important dimensions for a pipe is the outer diameter (OD) together with the wall thickness (WT). OD minus 2 times WT (SCHEDULE) determine the inside diameter (ID) of a pipe, which determines the liquid capacity of the pipe.

EXAMPLES OF ACTUAL O.D. AND I.D.

ACTUAL OUTSIDE DIAMETERS

  • NPS 1 actual O.D. = 1.5/16″ (33.4 mm)
  • NPS 2 actual O.D. = 2.3/8″ (60.3 mm)
  • NPS 3 actual O.D. = 3.1/2″ (88.9 mm)
  • NPS 4 actual O.D. = 4.1/2″ (114.3 mm)
  • NPS 12 actual O.D. = 12.3/4″ (323.9 mm)
  • NPS 14 ACTUAL O.D. = 14″ (355.6 MM)

ACTUAL INSIDE DIAMETERS OF A 1 INCH PIPE.

  • NPS 1-SCH 40 = O.D.33,4 mm – WT. 3,38 mm – I.D. 26,64 mm
  • NPS 1-SCH 80 = O.D.33,4 mm – WT. 4,55 mm – I.D. 24,30 mm
  • NPS 1-SCH 160 = O.D.33,4 mm – WT. 6,35 mm – I.D. 20,70 mm

Such as above defined, the inside diameter is determined by the oudside diameter (OD) and wall thickness (WT).

What is Tube?

The name TUBE refers to round, square, rectangular and oval hollow sections that are used for pressure equipment, for mechanical applications, and for instrumentation systems.

Tubes are indicated with outer diameter and wall thickness, in inches or in millimeters.

The most important mechanical parameters for pipes are the pressure rating, the yield strength, and the ductility.

The standard combinations of pipe Nominal Pipe Size and Wall Thickness (schedule) are covered by the ASME B36.10 and ASME B36.19 specifications (respectively, carbon and alloy pipes, and stainless steel pipes).

Pipe vs Tube, 10 basic differences

What is the meaning of seamless pipe? Seamless Pipe. Tubular product made without a welded seam, manufactured in a hot-forming process using an extrusion or drawing process that can be followed by cold sizing or cold finishing to produce the desired shape, dimensions and properties.   Seamless pipe definition An extruded seamless tube having certain standardized sizes of outside diameter and wall thickness, commonly designated by nominal pipe sizes and American National Standards Institute’s schedule numbers.   Seamless tubing definition Tubing manufactured with no visible seams. Seamless tubing is produced via extrusion or rotary piercing. NOTE: Typically manufactured in a hot forming process by extrusion or drawing which can be followed by cold sizing or finishing to the desired shape, dimensions and properties.   Seamless Pipe Wrought steel tubular product made without a welded seam. NOTE: Seamless pipe is manufactured by hot-working steel and, if necessary, by subsequently cold finishing the hot-worked tubular product to produce the desired shape, dimensions and properties.   Seamless Pipe Wrought steel tubular product made without a weld seam.   Seamless Pipe Tubular product made without a welded seam, manufactured in a hot-forming process using an extrusion or drawing process that can be followed by cold sizing or cold finishing to produce the desired shape, dimensions and properties.     The Difference Between Carbon and Stainless Steel Selecting an appropriate type of steel for a project is one of the most important decisions to make. However, before deciding between individual grades, you first have to decide what type of steel to use, such as carbon steel or stainless steel. To help, this article will discuss the difference between carbon and stainless steel.   Corrosion Resistance The most obvious difference between carbon steels and stainless steels is the ability to resist corrosion. Stainless steels, as the name implies, are generally the more corrosion resistant of the two steels. Both carbon steels and stainless steels contain iron which oxidizes when exposed to the environment, creating rust. The added chromium in stainless steel makes it more corrosion resistant than carbon steels. The chromium will attach itself to oxygen more readily than iron. When the chromium attaches to the oxygen, it creates a chromium oxide layer which protects the rest of the material from degradation and corrosion. Carbon steel does not typically have enough chromium to form this chromium oxide layer, allowing oxygen to bond with the iron which results in iron oxide, or rust. So if corrosion resistance is a key factor, stainless steel is the way to go.   Mechanical Properties It is difficult to make sweeping statements about the differences in mechanical properties between carbon steels and stainless steels because of the many different types and grades of each. Stainless steels can be more ductile than carbon steels because they usually have higher amounts of nickel. However, there are very brittle grades of stainless steel as well, such as the martensitic grades. Carbon steels with very low amounts of carbon may not match tensile strengths of some stainless steels due to the alloying elements that many stainless steel grades contain which increase its strength. However, if there is enough carbon (typically at least 0.30% by weight) in the carbon steel, it is more readily heat treated than an austenitic stainless steel.   Appearance If the job requires an aesthetic appeal, the appearance of the metal must be considered. Stainless steels with particular finishes are generally preferred when cosmetic appearance is a factor. Although both can be sanded and polished to have a bright, shiny look, carbon steel requires a clear coat or paint rather quickly after the polishing process. If it is not applied, the carbon steel will begin to tarnish and eventually rust. Also, if stainless steel is scratched, it will retain its luster in the scratched area, while a painted piece of carbon steel would need to be repainted or it will be subject to corrosion.   Cost Another important consideration is the cost difference between carbon steels and stainless steels. Although different grades have varying costs, stainless steels are generally more expensive than carbon steels. This is due mostly to the addition of a variety of alloying elements in stainless steel, including chromium, nickel, manganese, and others. These additional elements all add up to an increased cost over carbon steels. Carbon steel, on the other hand, is mostly composed of relatively affordable iron and carbon elements. If you’re working with a tight budget on your next project, carbon steel might be the best option.   How to Choose? Choosing between carbon steel and stainless steel for a particular job will involve weighing all of these factors and careful consideration. If the metal is going to be hidden from sight, there is no sense in spending extra money on stainless steel strictly for its appearance. However, if it is going to be hidden from sight but subject to a corrosive environment, stainless steel may actually be the best option. In the end, the choice will depend on the specifics of the job or project.   Metal Supermarkets Metal Supermarkets is the world’s largest small-quantity metal supplier with over 80 brick-and-mortar stores across the US, Canada, and United Kingdom. We are metal experts and have been providing quality customer service and products since 1985.   At Metal Supermarkets, we supply a wide range of metals for a variety of applications. Our stock includes: stainless steel, alloy steel, galvanized steel, tool steel, aluminum, brass, bronze and copper.   Our hot rolled and cold rolled steel is available in a wide range of shapes including: bars, tubes, sheets and plates. We can cut metal to your exact specifications.     UOE UOE is a method used for production of longitudinally welded large diameter pipes. Longitudinal edges of steel plates are first beveled using carbide milling equipment. Beveled plates are then formed into a U shape using a U-press and subsequently into an O shape using an O-press. UOE pipe fabrication process for welded pipes, expanded.     CLASSES OF STAINLESS STEEL Stainless steels are generally grouped into 5 different classes. Each is identified by the alloying elements which affect their microstructure and for which each is named.   What is Stainless Steel? Stainless steel is a low carbon steel which contains chromium; it is this addition of chromium that gives plain steel its unique stain and corrosion resisting properties. The chromium in the steel allows the formation of a rough, invisible, corrosion resisting chromium oxide film on the steel surface. If the material is damaged either mechanically or chemically, the film heals itself (providing that oxygen is present). With the addition of chromium and other elements such as molybdenum, nickel and nitrogen, the steel takes on increased corrosion resistance and other properties.   The Classes of Stainless Steel

  • Martensitic stainless steels
  • Ferritic stainless steels
  • Austenitic stainless steels
  • Duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels
  • Precipitation-Hardening (PH) stainless steels

  Martensitic Stainless Steel Martensitic Stainless grades are a group of stainless alloys made to be be corrosion resistant and harden-able (using heat treating). All martensitic grades are straightforward chromium steels without nickel. All of these grades are magnetic. Martensitic grades are mainly used where hardness, strength, and wear resistance are required.   Grade Types  

  • Type 410: A basic martensitic grade that contains lower alloy content. It has a relatively low cost, and it is a general purpose, heat treatable stainless steel. Typically used where corrosion is not too severe (such as air, water, some chemicals, and food acids.). Applications for this product can include parts needing a combination of strength and corrosion resistance, such as fasteners.
  • Type 410S: Holds a lower carbon content than Type 410, but provides improved weldability with lower hardenability. This is a general purpose corrosion and heat resisting chromium steel.
  • Type 414: This type has increased Nickel content (2%) for improved corrosion resistance. Typical applications include springs and cutlery.
  • Type 416: The added Phosphorus and Sulphur in this type allow for improved machinability. Typical applications include screw machine parts.
  • Type 420: Increased carbon in this type helps improve the mechanical properties. Typical applications include surgical instruments.
  • Type 431: Has increased chromium content for greater corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. Typical applications include high strength parts such as valves and pumps.
  • Type 440: Further increases to the Chromium and Carbon content help improve toughness and corrosion resistance of this type. Typical applications include surgical instruments.

  Ferritic stainless steel Ferritic Stainless grades resist corrosion and oxidation, whilst remaining resistant to stress and cracking. Although these steels are magnetic, they cannot be hardened using heat treatment. Once annealed these grades can be cold worked. They have a higher corrosion resistance than martensitic grades, but are mostly inferior to the austenitic grades. These grades are straight Chromium steels with no Nickel, and are often used for decorative trim, sinks, and certain automotive applications such as exhaust systems.  

  • Type 430: A basic grade that has less corrosion resistance than Type 304. This type has a resistance to corrosives like nitric acid, sulfur gases, and many organic and food acids.
  • Type 405: This type has a lower chromium content combined with added aluminum. This chemical makeup helps prevent hardening when cooled from high temperatures. Typical applications include heat exchangers.
  • Type 409: One of the least expensive Stainless grades due to its decreased chromium content. This type should only be used for interior or exterior parts in non-critical corrosive environments. Typical applications include muffler stock.
  • Type 434: This type has an increased Molybdenum content that gives it improved corrosion resistance. Typical applications can include automotive trim and fasteners.
  • Type 436: This grade has columbium added for corrosion and heat resistance. Most typical applications include deep-drawn parts.
  • Type 442: Has improved scaling resistance due to the increased Chromium content. Applications can include furnace and heater parts.
  • Type 446: Even higher chromium content has been added to further improve corrosion and scaling resistance at high temperatures. This grade is very good with oxidation resistance in a sulfuric environment.

  Austenitic Stainless Steel Austenitic Stainless is the most commonly used stainless class. The high Chromium and Nickel content of the grades in this group provide superior corrosion resistance and very good mechanical properties. They cannot be hardened through heat treatment, but can be hardened considerably thru cold-working. None of the grades in this class are magnetic.   Standard Grades The standard grades of austenitic stainless steel contain a maximum of .08% carbon; there is no minimum carbon requirement.   Low Carbon Grades (L Grades) The “L” grades are used to provide extra corrosion resistance after welding. The letter “L” after a stainless steel grade number indicates low carbon. Carbon levels are kept to .03% or under to avoid carbide precipitation, which can lead to corrosion. Due to the temperatures created during the welding process (which can lead to carbon precipitation) – “L” grades are typically used. Quite commonly, Stainless mills offer these stainless grades as dual certified, such as 304/304L or 316/316L.   High Carbon Grades (H Grades) Stainless “H” grades have a minimum of .04% carbon and a maximum of .10% carbon. The higher carbon helps retain strength at extreme temperatures. These grades are indicated by the letter “H” after the stainless grade number. The use of this designation would be when the end-use involves an extreme temperature environment.

  • Type 304: One of the most commonly used (Austenitic) Stainless grades. Its high content of Chromium and Nickel make it a preferred choice when making processing equipment for the chemical (mild chemicals), food/dairy and beverage industries. This grade possesses an excellent combination of strength, corrosion resistance and fabric-ability.
  • Type 316: This Stainless grade has 18% chromium, 14% Nickel and added Molybdenum; these in combination increase its resistance to corrosion. In particular, it is the molybdenum that is used which helps to control the pit type attack of corrosion. This grade will resist scaling at temperatures up to 1600 F. Type 316 is used in chemical processing, the pulp and paper industry, for food and beverage processing and dispensing and in the more corrosive environments. It is also used in the marine industry due to its resistance to corrosion.
  • Type 317: Containing a higher percentage of molybdenum than 316, it is used in highly corrosive environments. The Molybdenum content of this grade must be greater than 3%. Commonly used in scrubber systems of air pollution control devices that are used to remove particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.
  • Type 321: Contains a Titanium addition of at least five times the carbon content. This addition is made to reduce or eliminate chromium carbide precipitation – resulting from welding or exposure to high temperatures. Used in the Aerospace industry.
  • Type 347: Has a slightly improved corrosion resistance over type 321 stainless steel in strongly oxidizing environments. Type 347 should be considered for applications requiring intermittent heating between 800ºF (427ºC) and 1650ºF (899ºC), or for welding under conditions which prevent a post-weld anneal.

  Duplex (Ferritic-Austenitic) Stainless Steels Duplex grades are a combination of austenitic and ferritic material. These grades are about twice as strong as the austenitic and ferritic grades. While they do have better toughness and ductility than the ferritic grades, they do not reach the levels of the austenitic grades. Duplex grades have a corrosion resistance very close to the austenitic grades such as 304 and 316. Grade 2205 is the most widely used in the duplex class.

  • Type 2205: Duplex 2205 is ideally suited for high-pressure and highly corrosive environments. It also has high corrosion and erosion fatigue properties as well as lower thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity than austenitic. The usage of this grade should be should be limited to temperatures below 315° C, as extended elevated temperature exposure can result in brittle material.
  • Type 2304: Duplex 2304 is generally used in the same applications in which Alloys 304 and 316L are used. It has corrosion resistance very close or slightly better than austenitic grades 304 and 316, but it has nearly doubled yield strength. It is suited for use in temperatures between -50° and 300° C. This grade has a high mechanical strength and a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking. It has good weldability, machinability, and is easy to fabricate.
  • Type 2507: Duplex 2507 is a super duplex stainless steel. It is in applications which require exceptional strength and corrosion resistance, such as chemical process, petrochemical, and seawater equipment. This grade has excellent resistance to chloride stress, corrosion cracking, high thermal conductivity, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The high chromium, molybdenum, and nitrogen levels provide excellent resistance to pitting, crevice, and general corrosion.

  Precipitation-hardening (PH) stainless steels Precipitation hardening stainless steel can be strengthened and hardened by heat treatment. This offers the designer a unique combination of fabric-ability, strength, ease of heat treatment, and corrosion resistance not found in any other class of material. These grades include 17Cr-4Ni (17-4PH) and 15Cr-5Ni (15-5PH).  

  • Type 17-4: Alloy 17-4 is a chromium-copper precipitation hardening stainless steel that is used for applications requiring high strength and a moderate level of corrosion resistance. It has high strength and good corrosion resistance in all heat treated conditions. This grade can be heat treated in a variety of temperatures; resulting in a wide range of finished properties. This grade should not be used in temperatures above 300° C or very low temperatures.
  • Type 15-5: This is a variant of the older 17-4 chromium-nickel-copper precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel. The 15-5 alloy was designed to have greater toughness than 17-4. It is used in applications requiring better corrosion resistance and transverse properties compared to other similar martensitic grades.

    Main Standards organizations impacting steel piping With the rapid expansion in the global trade, standardization of various products has become an essential requirement. The standards given to various products significantly contributes towards increasing international trade which in turn bridges the quality gap between the manufacturers, producers and buyers of different nations. Because pipe is so common among so many industries, it’s no surprise that a number of different standards organizations impact the production and testing of pipe for use across a wide array of applications.   What is the meaning of ASTM standard? ASTM International, known until 2001 as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM’s steel standards are instrumental in classifying, evaluating, and specifying the material, chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties of the different types of steels, which are primarily used in the production of mechanical components, industrial parts, and construction elements, as well as other accessories related to them. The steels can be of the carbon, structural, stainless, ferritic, austenitic, and alloy types. These steel standards are helpful in guiding metallurgical laboratories and refineries, product manufacturers, and other end-users of steel and its variants in their proper processing and application procedures to ensure quality towards safe use. ASTM International provides industrial material and service standards across a wide range of industrial sectors. The organization has published more than 12,000 standards currently in use in industries worldwide. More than 100 of those standards pertain to steel pipe, tubing, fittings and flanges. Unlike some standards organizations that impact steel pipe in specific industrial sectors, ASTM standards cover a wide variety of pipe used in just about every industry you can think of. For example, Sunny Steel stocks a full range of A106 pipe. The A106 standard covers seamless carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service. That standard does not necessarily limit pipe to any certain industrial application.   What is AISI steel? SAE International, as a standards organization, maintains several alloy numbering systems, one of which, for steel grades, is the SAE steel grades system. In the 1930s and 1940s the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and SAE were both involved in efforts to standardize such a numbering system for steels.   What does SAE stand for in steel? In the case of the simple alloy steels, the second digit generally indicates the approximate percentage of the predominant alloying element. The US designations for steels are those of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).   ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers began publishing standards for industrial tools and machine parts in 1880 and has been a driving force behind safety improvements to boilers and pressure vessels used across industrial sectors.   As pipe commonly accompanies pressure vessels, ASME standards cover a wide variety of pipe applications across many industries, same as ASTM. In fact, the ASME and ASTM pipe standards are largely identical. Any time you see a pipe standard expressed with both an ‘A’ and an ‘SA’—an example is A/SA 333—it’s a sign that the material meets both the ASTM and ASME standards.   API As its name indicates, the American Petroleum Institute is an industry-specific organization that, among other things, develops and publishes standards for pipe and other materials used in the oil & gas industry.   Piping rated under an API standard can be very similar in material and design to pipes used in other industries under other standards. API standards are more strict and include additional testing requirements, but there is some overlap.   API 5L pipe, for example, is commonly used in oil & gas settings. The standard is similar to A/SA 106 and A/SA 53. Some grades of API 5L pipe comply with the A/SA 106 and A/SA 53 standards and therefore can be used interchangeably. But A/SA 106 and A/SA 53 pipe do not comply with all API 5L criteria.   ANSI The American National Standards Institute was founded following a gathering of several industry standards organizations in 1916 with the goal of developing voluntary consensus standards in the U.S.   ANSI joined with similar organizations in other countries to form the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The Organization publishes standards accepted by industrial stakeholders from across the world. ANSI also acts as an accrediting body that endorses standards developed by individual organizations for worldwide adoption.   Many ASTM, ASME and other standards have been endorsed by ANSI as acceptable common standards. One example is the ASME B16 standard for flanges, valves, fittings and gaskets. The standard was initially developed by ASME, but it’s been endorsed for use worldwide by ANSI.   ANSI’s efforts have helped open international markets for producers and suppliers of pipe due to its role in the development and adoption of common standards accepted globally.   The right pipe supplier With decades of experience supplying pipe to customers of all industries all over the world, Sunny Steel understands the complexity —and the importance— of the many standards that govern the production and testing of pipe. Let us use that experience for the good of your business. By choosing Sunny Steel as your supplier, you can focus on what matters most to you instead of getting bogged down in the details. We’ll handle that.

heat-and-colddrawn-seamless-carbon-steel-pipe-condenser.jpg
Heat and colddrawn seamless carbon steel pipe condenser ASTM A179

What is carbon steel? As defined by the American Iron and Steel Institute, carbon steel is: Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, niobium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium or zirconium, or any other element to be added to obtain a desired alloying effect; when the specified minimum for copper does not exceed 0.40 percent; or when the maximum content specified for any of the following elements does not exceed the percentages noted: manganese 1.65, silicon 0.60, copper 0.60.   Most the steel produced in the world falls into the category of carbon steel.   Are there different types of carbon steel pipes? There are different classes of carbon steel. They are categorized by the percentage of carbon that is mixed with the base element, iron. Classes of carbon steel Carbon content %

  • Ultra-high carbon steel 1.00 – 2.00
  • High carbon steel 0.60 – 0.99
  • Medium carbon steel 0.30 – 0.59
  • Low carbon steel 0.16 – 0.29
  • Mild carbon steel 0.05 – 0.15

And as with any pipes, there are different types of carbon steel pipes. If you need a certain type of pipe, St. Louis Pipe and Supply is sure to have it. Please feel free to contact us at any time.   Do we need carbon steel? It depends on your application. You may need steel, but you may need plastic, or even concrete or ceramic pipes may work for your needs. Carbon steel pipes do have a wide range of uses. For example, they are used for low pressure conveyance of gas, water, oil, air steam or other fluids. They are used in machinery, buildings, sprinkler systems, irrigation systems, and water wells.   Is it hard to work with carbon steel? As with any materials, carbon steel pipes do offer their own challenges when working with them. The joining method is generally dictated by wall thickness, which in turn is dictated by size and use. There are a variety of carbon steel pipe fittings that can be used. In addition to joining, cutting carbon steel pipes offers its own challenges. Again though, the method for cutting is determined by the thickness and hardness of the pipe. Cutting carbon steel pipes could be accomplished by several methods ranging from handheld band saw to cutting torch.   Where can we get carbon steel pipe and carbon steel pipe fittings? Sunny Steel has every type of carbon steel pipe and carbon steel pipe fittings you need. Even if you haven’t found it elsewhere, we can get it or we can make it. Are there any other questions about carbon pipe they you would like to have answered? Feel free to comment or drop us a line, anytime.

ASTM Standards for steel pipes

ASTM’s steel standards are instrumental in classifying, evaluating, and specifying the material, chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties of the different types of steels, which are primarily used in the production of mechanical components, industrial parts, and construction elements, as well as other accessories related to them.

A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders, masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.

Abbr.CorrespondingApplication
A53ASTM A53/A53m-99bspecification for pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless
A74ASTM A74-98specification for cast iron soil pipe and fittings
A106ASTM A106-99e1specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service
A126ASTM A126-95e1specification for grey iron castings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings
A134ASTM A134-96specification for pipe, steel, electric-fusion (arc)-welded (sizes nps 16 and over
A135ASTM A135-97cspecification for electric-resistance-welded steel pipe
A139ASTM A139-96e1specification for electric-fusion (arc)-welded steel pipe (nps 4 and over)
A182ASTM A182/A182m-99specificationfor forged or rolled alloy-steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and valves and parts for high-temperature service
A252ASTM A252-98specification for welded and seamless steel pipe piles
A312ASTM A312/a312m-00specification for seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipes
A333ASTM A333/A333m-99specification for seamless and welded steel pipe for low-temperature service
A335ASTM A335/A335m-99specification for seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service
A338ASTM A338-84(1998)specificationfor malleable iron flanges, pipe fittings, and valve parts for railroad, marine, and other heavy duty service at temperatures up to 650°f (345°c)
A358ASTM A358/A358m-98specification for electric-fusion-welded austenitic chromium-nickel alloy steel pipe for high-temperature service
A369ASTM A369/A369m-92specification for carbon and ferritic alloy steel forged and bored pipe for high-temperature service
A376A376/A376m-98specification for seamless austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature central-station service
A377ASTM A377-99index of specifications for ductile-iron pressure pipe
A409ASTM A409/A409m-95ae1specification for welded large diameter austenitic steel pipe for corrosive or high-temperature service
A426ASTM A426-92(1997)specification for centrifugally cast ferritic alloy steel pipe for high-temperature service
A451ASTM A451-93(1997)specification for centrifugally cast austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature service
A523ASTM A523-96specification for plain end seamless and electric-resistance-welded steel pipe for high-pressure pipe-type cable circuits
A524ASTM A524-96specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for atmospheric and lower temperatures
A530ASTM A530/A530m-99specification for general requirements for specialized carbon and alloy steel pipe
A648ASTM A648-95e1specification for steel wire, hard drawn for prestressing concrete pipe
A674ASTM A674-95practice for polyethylene encasement for ductile iron pipe for water or other liquids
A691ASTM A691-98specification for carbon and alloy steel pipe, electric-fusion-welded for high-pressure service at high temperatures
A694ASTM A694/A694m-00specification for carbon and alloy steel forgings for pipe flanges, fittings, valves, and parts for high-pressure transmission service
A716ASTM A716-99specification for ductile iron culvert pipe
A733ASTM A733-99specification for welded and seamless carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel pipe nipples
A742ASTM A742/A742m-98specification for steel sheet, metallic coated and polymer precoated for corrugated steel pipe
A746ASTM A746-99specification for ductile iron gravity sewer pipe
A760ASTM A760/A760m-99specification for corrugated steel pipe, metallic-coated for sewers and drains
a761ASTM A761/A761m-98specification for corrugated steel structural plate, zinc-coated, for field-bolted pipe, pipe-arches, and arches
A762ASTM A762/A762m-98specification for corrugated steel pipe, polymer precoated for sewers and drains
A790ASTM A790/A790m-99specification for seamless and welded ferritic/austenitic stainless steel pipe
A796ASTM A796/A796m-99practice for structural design of corrugated steel pipe, pipe-arches, and arches for storm and sanitary sewers and other buried applications
A798ASTM A798/A798m-97apractice for installing factory-made corrugated steel pipe for sewers and other applications
A807ASTM A807/A807m-97practice for installing corrugated steel structural plate pipe for sewers and other applications
A810ASTM A810-94specification for zinc-coated (galvanized) steel pipe winding mesh
A813ASTM A813/A813m-95e2specification for single- or double-welded austenitic stainless steel pipe
A814ASTM A814/A814m-96 (1998)specification for cold-worked welded austenitic stainless steel pipe
A849ASTM A849-99specification for post-applied coatings, pavings, and linings for corrugated steel sewer and drainage pipe
A861ASTM A861-94e1specification for high-silicon iron pipe and fittings
A862ASTM A862/A862m-98practice for application of asphalt coatings to corrugated steel sewer and drainage pipe
A865ASTM A865-97specification for threaded couplings, steel, black or zinc-coated (galvanized) welded or seamless, for use in steel pipe joints
A872ASTM A872-91 (1997)specification for centrifugally cast ferritic/austenitic stainless steel pipe for corrosive environments
A885ASTM A885/A885m-96specification for steel sheet, zinc and aramid fiber composite coated for corrugated steel sewer, culvert, and underdrain pipe
A888ASTM A888-98e1specification for hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings for sanitary and storm drain, waste, and vent piping applications
A926ASTM A926-97test method for comparing the abrasion resistance of coating materials for corrugated metal pipe
A928ASTM A928/A928m-98specification for ferritic/austenitic (duplex) stainless steel pipe electric fusion welded with addition of filler metal
A929ASTM A929/A929m-97specification for steel sheet, metallic-coated by the hot-dip process for corrugated steel pipe
A930ASTM A930-99practice for life-cycle cost analysis of corrugated metal pipe used for culverts, storm sewers, and other buried conduits
A943ASTM A943/A943m-95e1specification for spray-formed seamless austenitic stainless steel pipes
A949ASTM A949/A949m-95e1specification for spray-formed seamless ferritic/austenitic stainless steel pipe
A954ASTM A954-96specification for austenitic chromium-nickel-silicon alloy steel seamless and welded pipe
A972ASTM A972/A972m-99specification for fusion bonded epoxy-coated pipe piles
A978ASTM A978/A978m-97specification for composite ribbed steel pipe, precoated and polyethylene lined for gravity flow sanitary sewers, storm sewers, and other special applications
A984ASTM A984/A984m-00specification for steel line pipe, black, plain-end, electric-resistance-welded
A998ASTM A998/A998m-98practice for structural design of reinforcements for fittings in factory-made corrugated steel pipe for sewers and other applications
A999A999/A999m-98specification for general requirements for alloy and stainless steel pipe
A1005ASTM A1005/A1005m-00specification for steel line pipe, black, plain end, longitudinal and helical seam, double submerged-arc welded
A1006ASTM A1006/A1006mspecification for steel line pipe, black, plain end, laser beam welded

These steel standards are helpful in guiding metallurgical laboratories and refineries, product manufacturers, and other end-users of steel and its variants in their proper processing and application procedures to ensure quality towards safe use.

ASTM standards for Heat-exchanger and condenser tubes
Abbr.CorrespondingApplication
A179ASTM A179 / A179MStandard Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A213ASTM A213/A213MSpecification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes
A214ASTM A214 / A214MSpecification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A249ASTM A249 / A249MSpecification for Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes
A498ASTM A498 / A498MSpecification for Seamless and Welded Carbon, Ferritic, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes with Integral Fins
A851ASTM A851 / ASME SA851Specification for High-Frequency Induction Welded, Unannealed, Austenitic Steel Condenser Tubes
ASTM standards for Mechanical tubing
Abbr.CorrespondingApplication
A511ASTM A511 / A511MSpecification for Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing
A512ASTM A512 / ASME SA512Specification for Cold-Drawn Buttweld Carbon Steel Mechanical Tubing
A513ASTM A513 / A513MSpecification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
A519ASTM A519 / A519MSpecification for Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
A554ASTM A554Specification for Welded Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing
ASTM standards for Structural tubing
Abbr.CorrespondingApplication
A500ASTM A500 / A500MSpecification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
A501ASTM A501 / A501MSpecification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing
A847ASTM A847 / A847MSpecification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High Strength, Low Alloy Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
A618ASTM A618 / A618MSpecification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Tubing
ASTM standards for Welding fittings
Abbr.CorrespondingApplication
A234ASTM A234 / A234MSpecification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
A403ASTM A403/A403MSpecification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
A420ASTM A420 / A420MSpecification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service
A774ASTM A774 / A774MSpecification for As-Welded Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Fittings for General Corrosive Service at Low and Moderate Temperatures
A758ASTM A758 / A758MSpecification for Wrought-Carbon Steel Butt-Welding Piping Fittings with Improved Notch Toughness
sunnysteel

Sunny Steel provide a wide range of steel products as Steel pipes, Seamless tube and seamless pipes, Alloy pipes, Pipe fittings, Composite steel pipe used in the industry, construction etc.

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