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ASTM Seamless pipe

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ASTM Standards for steel pipes

ASTM’s steel standards are instrumental in classifying, evaluating, and specifying the material, chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties of the different types of steels, which are primarily used in the production of mechanical components, industrial parts, and construction elements, as well as other accessories related to them.

A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders, masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.

These steel standards are helpful in guiding metallurgical laboratories and refineries, product manufacturers, and other end-users of steel and its variants in their proper processing and application procedures to ensure quality towards safe use.

ASTM Standard of Steel pipes

These steel standards are helpful in guiding metallurgical laboratories and refineries, product manufacturers, and other end-users of steel and its variants in their proper processing and application procedures to ensure quality towards safe use.

Abbr. Corresponding Application
A53 ASTM A53/A53m-99b specification for pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless
A74 ASTM A74-98 specification for cast iron soil pipe and fittings
A106 ASTM A106-99e1 specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service
A126 ASTM A126-95e1 specification for grey iron castings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings
A134 ASTM A134-96 specification for pipe, steel, electric-fusion (arc)-welded (sizes nps 16 and over
A135 ASTM A135-97c specification for electric-resistance-welded steel pipe
A139 ASTM A139-96e1 specification for electric-fusion (arc)-welded steel pipe (nps 4 and over)
A182 ASTM A182/A182m-99 specificationfor forged or rolled alloy-steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and valves and parts for high-temperature service
A252 ASTM A252-98 specification for welded and seamless steel pipe piles
A312 ASTM A312/a312m-00 specification for seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipes
A333 ASTM A333/A333m-99 specification for seamless and welded steel pipe for low-temperature service
A335 ASTM A335/A335m-99 specification for seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service
A338 ASTM A338-84(1998) specificationfor malleable iron flanges, pipe fittings, and valve parts for railroad, marine, and other heavy duty service at temperatures up to 650°f (345°c)
A358 ASTM A358/A358m-98 specification for electric-fusion-welded austenitic chromium-nickel alloy steel pipe for high-temperature service
A369 ASTM A369/A369m-92 specification for carbon and ferritic alloy steel forged and bored pipe for high-temperature service
A376 A376/A376m-98 specification for seamless austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature central-station service
A377 ASTM A377-99 index of specifications for ductile-iron pressure pipe
A409 ASTM A409/A409m-95ae1 specification for welded large diameter austenitic steel pipe for corrosive or high-temperature service
A426 ASTM A426-92(1997) specification for centrifugally cast ferritic alloy steel pipe for high-temperature service
A451 ASTM A451-93(1997) specification for centrifugally cast austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature service
A523 ASTM A523-96 specification for plain end seamless and electric-resistance-welded steel pipe for high-pressure pipe-type cable circuits
A524 ASTM A524-96 specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for atmospheric and lower temperatures
A530 ASTM A530/A530m-99 specification for general requirements for specialized carbon and alloy steel pipe
A648 ASTM A648-95e1 specification for steel wire, hard drawn for prestressing concrete pipe
A674 ASTM A674-95 practice for polyethylene encasement for ductile iron pipe for water or other liquids
A691 ASTM A691-98 specification for carbon and alloy steel pipe, electric-fusion-welded for high-pressure service at high temperatures
A694 ASTM A694/A694m-00 specification for carbon and alloy steel forgings for pipe flanges, fittings, valves, and parts for high-pressure transmission service
A716 ASTM A716-99 specification for ductile iron culvert pipe
A733 ASTM A733-99 specification for welded and seamless carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel pipe nipples
A742 ASTM A742/A742m-98 specification for steel sheet, metallic coated and polymer precoated for corrugated steel pipe
A746 ASTM A746-99 specification for ductile iron gravity sewer pipe
A760 ASTM A760/A760m-99 specification for corrugated steel pipe, metallic-coated for sewers and drains
a761 ASTM A761/A761m-98 specification for corrugated steel structural plate, zinc-coated, for field-bolted pipe, pipe-arches, and arches
A762 ASTM A762/A762m-98 specification for corrugated steel pipe, polymer precoated for sewers and drains
A790 ASTM A790/A790m-99 specification for seamless and welded ferritic/austenitic stainless steel pipe
A796 ASTM A796/A796m-99 practice for structural design of corrugated steel pipe, pipe-arches, and arches for storm and sanitary sewers and other buried applications
A798 ASTM A798/A798m-97a practice for installing factory-made corrugated steel pipe for sewers and other applications
A807 ASTM A807/A807m-97 practice for installing corrugated steel structural plate pipe for sewers and other applications
A810 ASTM A810-94 specification for zinc-coated (galvanized) steel pipe winding mesh
A813 ASTM A813/A813m-95e2 specification for single- or double-welded austenitic stainless steel pipe
A814 ASTM A814/A814m-96 (1998) specification for cold-worked welded austenitic stainless steel pipe
A849 ASTM A849-99 specification for post-applied coatings, pavings, and linings for corrugated steel sewer and drainage pipe
A861 ASTM A861-94e1 specification for high-silicon iron pipe and fittings
A862 ASTM A862/A862m-98 practice for application of asphalt coatings to corrugated steel sewer and drainage pipe
A865 ASTM A865-97 specification for threaded couplings, steel, black or zinc-coated (galvanized) welded or seamless, for use in steel pipe joints
A872 ASTM A872-91 (1997) specification for centrifugally cast ferritic/austenitic stainless steel pipe for corrosive environments
A885 ASTM A885/A885m-96 specification for steel sheet, zinc and aramid fiber composite coated for corrugated steel sewer, culvert, and underdrain pipe
A888 ASTM A888-98e1 specification for hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings for sanitary and storm drain, waste, and vent piping applications
A926 ASTM A926-97 test method for comparing the abrasion resistance of coating materials for corrugated metal pipe
A928 ASTM A928/A928m-98 specification for ferritic/austenitic (duplex) stainless steel pipe electric fusion welded with addition of filler metal
A929 ASTM A929/A929m-97 specification for steel sheet, metallic-coated by the hot-dip process for corrugated steel pipe
A930 ASTM A930-99 practice for life-cycle cost analysis of corrugated metal pipe used for culverts, storm sewers, and other buried conduits
A943 ASTM A943/A943m-95e1 specification for spray-formed seamless austenitic stainless steel pipes
A949 ASTM A949/A949m-95e1 specification for spray-formed seamless ferritic/austenitic stainless steel pipe
A954 ASTM A954-96 specification for austenitic chromium-nickel-silicon alloy steel seamless and welded pipe
A972 ASTM A972/A972m-99 specification for fusion bonded epoxy-coated pipe piles
A978 ASTM A978/A978m-97 specification for composite ribbed steel pipe, precoated and polyethylene lined for gravity flow sanitary sewers, storm sewers, and other special applications
A984 ASTM A984/A984m-00 specification for steel line pipe, black, plain-end, electric-resistance-welded
A998 ASTM A998/A998m-98 practice for structural design of reinforcements for fittings in factory-made corrugated steel pipe for sewers and other applications
A999 A999/A999m-98 specification for general requirements for alloy and stainless steel pipe
A1005 ASTM A1005/A1005m-00 specification for steel line pipe, black, plain end, longitudinal and helical seam, double submerged-arc welded
A1006 ASTM A1006/A1006m specification for steel line pipe, black, plain end, laser beam welded

ASTM standards for Heat-exchanger and condenser tubes

Abbr. Corresponding Application
A179 ASTM A179 / A179M Standard Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A213 ASTM A213/A213M Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes
A214 ASTM A214 / A214M Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A249 ASTM A249 / A249M Specification for Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes
A498 ASTM A498 / A498M Specification for Seamless and Welded Carbon, Ferritic, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes with Integral Fins
A851 ASTM A851 / ASME SA851 Specification for High-Frequency Induction Welded, Unannealed, Austenitic Steel Condenser Tubes

ASTM standards for Mechanical tubing

Abbr. Corresponding Application
A511 ASTM A511 / A511M Specification for Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing
A512 ASTM A512 / ASME SA512 Specification for Cold-Drawn Buttweld Carbon Steel Mechanical Tubing
A513 ASTM A513 / A513M Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
A519 ASTM A519 / A519M Specification for Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
A554 ASTM A554 Specification for Welded Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing

ASTM standards for Structural tubing

Abbr. Corresponding Application
A500 ASTM A500 / A500M Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
A501 ASTM A501 / A501M Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing
A847 ASTM A847 / A847M Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High Strength, Low Alloy Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
A618 ASTM A618 / A618M Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Tubing

ASTM standards for Welding fittings

Abbr. Corresponding Application
A234 ASTM A234 / A234M Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
A403 ASTM A403/A403M Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
A420 ASTM A420 / A420M Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service
A774 ASTM A774 / A774M Specification for As-Welded Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Fittings for General Corrosive Service at Low and Moderate Temperatures
A758 ASTM A758 / A758M Specification for Wrought-Carbon Steel Butt-Welding Piping Fittings with Improved Notch Toughness

Conversion from ASTM Standards

Engineering specification is also a language, and standard specifications for material and processes are defined differently in each country in the world. To a new designer, steel grades might seem easy, where 316 stainless steel is one material and cast iron another, but there are variations in each of these categories of metal. Rumors abound about people receiving poor quality steels from other jurisdictions. It leaves some designers wondering if there is something intrinsic in the official standards in other countries that can lead to these complaints.

International standards do not translate, metal-for-metal, the way words might translate. When converting from one standard to another, it’s almost impossible to find identical compositions for a given type of metal. The question becomes: can you find an equivalent? This can be confusing, as each named metal grade has its own chemistry and production guidelines.

For people without a materials background, these differences can make the purchase of foreign-made metal seem iffy, like ordering an inferior knockoff. However, the quality of the grades of steel are as good, country to country. Understanding what makes a steel standard or specification can help a North American business navigate overseas production.

STEEL GRADES EXPLAINED

Metal alloys are a mixture of different proportions of elements. A standard includes the chemistry, or “recipe” for the alloy, documenting what different elements should be melted into it. Specific instructions may also be given on melting temperature, cooling, and treatment.

Published standards also record the mechanical properties of a specified metal. If it has been made correctly, a metal should not only have the correct chemical analysis, but also perform within the correct range in mechanical tests.

Steels contain iron and carbon. Standards for each grade of steel specify the proportions by weight of each of these elements, as well as any additional elements alloyed with them. These additions may create different characteristics: for example, chromium is present in stainless steel to help prevent rusting.

In most consumer metal standards, the proportions of each element are given an acceptable range, rather than a precise number. For example, the ASTM 1050 grade steel is so named because it is approximately .50% carbon by weight. However, the tolerance for carbon percentage in the ASTM 1050 standard is .48-.55%. A similar Japanese specification sets carbon between .47-.53%, and allows for silicon and other trace elements, whereas the ASTM standard does not.

Steel specifications often provide ranges for carbon, manganese, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum, and none set identical ranges for each element. It is for this reason that steel standards from different organizations are not precise matches: the tolerances merely overlap. If one steel specifies less than .007% sulfur content, and another allows up to .040%, are they different steels? Small changes do not matter in many situations but may be relevant depending on the metal’s intended use.

It is not just chemistry, but also processing, that changes the behavior of a metal. Metal is crystalline and forms grain microstructures as it cools. Chemistry, melting, cooling, and heat treatment all can change the grain of the metal. This directly influences tensile strength, hardness, and brittleness. Therefore, steel specification may also include the production steps needed to create particular microstructures, including martensite, austenite, or ferrite grains.

When making a substitution between one standard and another, a skilled metallurgist or engineer will evaluate comparable grades based on mechanical properties. The engineer considers what the final product needs to do, and in what conditions. Using their understanding of chemistry, the expected working load, and knowledge of the conditions the product will work in, they can find a steel for the product’s requirements in any standard. All recognized steel standards generally have equivalent rigor, making this translation possible.

It is not a difference in published standards that are the source of poor-quality foreign metals.