Stainless standard

Stainless steel is not a single material but the name for a family of corrosion resistant steels.

Properties

The advantageous properties of stainless steels can be seen when compared to standard plain carbon mild steel. Although stainless steels have a broad range of properties, in general, when compared with mild steel, stainless steels have:

All stainless steels are iron-based alloys that contain a minimum of around 10.5% Chromium. The Chromium in the alloy forms a self-healing protective clear oxide layer. This oxide layer gives stainless steels their corrosion resistance. The self healing nature of the oxide layer means the corrosion resistance remains intact regardless of fabrication methods. Even if the material surface is cut or damaged, it will self heal and corrosion resistance will be maintained.

Conversely, normal carbon steels may be protected from corrosion by painting or other coatings like galvanising. Any modification of the surface exposes the underlying steel and corrosion can occur.

The corrosion of different grades of stainless steel will differ with various environments. Suitable grades will depend upon the service environment. Even trace amounts of some elements can markedly alter the corrosion resistance. Chlorides in particular can have an adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

Grades high in Chromium, Molybdenum and Nickel are the most resistant to corrosion.

Cryogenic (Low Temperature) Resistance

Cryogenic resistance is measured by the ductility or toughness at sub zero temperatures. At cryogenic temperatures the tensile strengths of austenitic stainless steels are substantially higher than at ambient temperatures. They also maintain excellent toughness.

Ferritic, martensitic and precipitation hardening steels should not be used at sub-zero temperatures. The toughness of these grades drops significantly at low temperatures. In some cases this drop occurs close to room temperature.

Work Hardening

Work hardenable grades of stainless steel have the advantage that significant increases to the strength of the metal can be achieved simply through cold working. A combination of cold working and annealing stages can be employed to give the fabricated component a specific strength.

A typical example of this is the drawing of wire. Wire to be used as springs will be work hardened to a particular tensile strength. If the same wire was to be used as a bendable tie wire, it would be annealed, resulting in a softer material.

Hot Strength

Austenitic grades retain high strength at elevated temperatures. This is particularly so with grades containing high levels of chromium and/or high silicon, nitrogen and rare earth elements (e.g. grade 310 and S30815). High chromium ferritic grades like 446 can also show high hot strength.

The high chromium content of stainless steels also helps to resist scaling at elevated temperatures.

Ductility

Ductility tends to be given by the % elongation during a tensile test. The elongation for austenitic stainless steels is quite high. High ductility and high work hardening rates allows austenitic stainless steels to be formed using severe processes such as deep drawing.

High Strength

When compared with mild steels, stainless steels tend to have higher tensile strength. The duplex stainless steels have higher tensile strengths than austenitic steels.

The highest tensile strengths are seen in the martensitic (431) and precipitation hardening grades (17-4 PH). These grades can have strengths double that of TYPES 304 and 316, the most commonly used stainless steels.

Magnetic Response

Magnetic response is the attraction of steel to a magnet. Austenitic grades are generally not magnetic although a magnetic response can be induced in the low austenitic grades by cold working. High nickel grades like 316 and 310 will remain non-magnetic even with cold working.

All other grades are magnetic.

Stainless Steel Families

Although the corrosion resistance of stainless comes from the presence of Chromium, other elements are added to enhance other properties. These elements alter the microstructure of the steel.

Stainless steels are grouped into families based on their metallurgical microstructure. The microstructure may be composed of the stable phases austenite or ferrite, a “duplex” mix of these two, martensite or a hardened structure containing precipitated micro-constituents.

Austenitic Stainless Steels

Austenitic stainless steels contain a minimum of 16% chromium and 6% nickel. They range from basic grades like 304 through to super austenitics such as 904L and 6% Molybdenum grades.

By adding elements such as Molybdenum, Titanium or Copper, the properties of the steel can be modified. These modifications can make the steel suited to high temperature applications or increase corrosion resistance. Most steels become brittle at low temperatures but the Nickel in austenitic stainless makes it suited to low temperature or cryogenic applications.

Austenitic stainless steels are generally non-magnetic. They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment. Austenitic stainless steels rapidly work-harden with cold working. Although they work harden, they are the most readily formed of the stainless steels.

The principal alloying elements are sometimes reflected in the name of the steel. A common name for 304 stainless steel is 18/8, for 18% chromium and 8% nickel.

Our Stainless Steel Pipes meets mainly the following standards:

ASTM-Standards:

Iron and Steel Products Steel Piping, Steel Tubing, Fittings

  • A 213 / A 213M-09 -Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater and heat exchanger tubes
  • A 268 / A 268M -Seamless and welded ferritic and martensitic stainless steel tubing for general service
  • A 269 / A 269M - Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service
  • A 312 / A 312M - Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipes
  • A 450 / A 450M-03 -Standard Specification for General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes
  • ASTM A511 - Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing and Hollow Bar
  • A 789 / A 789M -Seamless and welded ferritic-austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service
  • A 790 / A 790M-08 - Seamless and welded ferritic-austenitic stainless steel pipe

*Note: Section Two: Nonferrous Metals Nickel, Cobalt, Lead, Tin, Zinc, Cadmium, Precious, Reactive, Refractory Metals and Alloys; Materials for Thermostats, Electrical Heating and Resistance Contacts, and Connectors

ASME-Standards

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is an American professional association

  • SA 213 / SA 213M - Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater and heat exchanger tubes
  • SA 268 / SA 268M - Seamless and welded ferritic and martensitic stainless steel tubing for general service
  • SA 269 / SA 269M - Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service
  • SA 312 / SA 312M - Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipes
  • SA 511 - Seamless stainless steel mechanical tubing
  • SA 789 / SA 789M - Seamless and welded ferritic-austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service
  • SA 790 / SA 790M -Seamless and welded ferritic-austenitic stainless steel pipe

UNI-Standards

Stainless and heat resisting steels

  • UNI 6904 -Seamless tubes of special alloyed corrosion and heat resisting stainless tubes
  • Duplex 2507 (UNS S32750) is a super duplex stainless steel with 25% chromium, 4% molybdenum, and 7% nickel designed.
  • Duplex 2205 (UNS S31803), or Avesta Sheffield 2205 is a ferritic-austenitic stainless steel.
  • SUPER DUPLEX UNS S32760 - is a super duplex stainless steel, so-called due to its higher Chromium and Molybdenum content.

GOST-Standards

  • GOST 633-80 - Tubing is used for oil and gas production. Tubing shall be made seamless, plain or upset and coupling with high-seal connections.
  • GOST 9940 - Seamless stainless steel tubes, hot finished
  • GOST 9941 - Seamless stainless steel tubes, cold and hot finished
  • TU 14-3-460 - Seamless Steel Pipes for Steam Boilers and Pipelines

European-Standards

All European standards have their own national designation (example NF EN 10216-5 DIN EN 10216-5 BS EN XXXXX UNI EN XXXXX ..)

  • EN 10216-5* - Seamless steel tubes for pressure purposes
  • EN ISO 1127 - Seamless stainless steel tubes (Dimensions and weights)
  • DIN 2391 - Seamless precision steel tubes
  • DIN 17175 - Heat-resisting seamless steel tube

*Note: This European standard is replacing old national standards for pressure purpose (DIN 17458 DIN 17459 NFA 49117 NFA 49217 NFA 49218 BS 3605 BS 3605-1 etc…

JIS-Standards

  • JIS G 3459 - Stainless steel pipes
  • JIS G 3463 -Stainless steel boiler and heat exchanger tubes



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