ASTM A234/ASME SA234M Standard Specification

ASTM A234 WPB is the Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service.

Forging is the manufacturing process of ASTM A234 WPB pipe fittings.

This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application.

ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service

Abstract …

This specification covers wrought carbon steel and alloy steel fittings of seamless and welded construction. These fittings are for use in pressure piping and in pressure vessel fabrication for service at moderate and elevated temperatures. The material for fittings shall consist of killed steel, forgings, bars, plates, seamless or fusion-welded tubular products with filler metal added. Forging or shaping operations may be performed by hammering, pressing, piercing, extruding, upsetting, rolling, bending, fusion welding, machining, or by a combination of two or more of these operations. The forming procedure shall be so applied that it will not produce injurious imperfections in the fittings. Fittings, after forming at an elevated temperature, shall be cooled to a temperature below the critical range under suitable conditions to prevent injurious defects caused by too rapid cooling, but in no case more rapidly than the cooling rate in still air. The fittings shall be subjected to tension test, hardness test, and hydrostatic test.

The regular fittings of A234 WPB pipe fittings are elbows, tees, reducers, caps, cross.

Chemical Composition (%) of ASTM A234/A234M fittings

Grade Type Chemical Composition (%)
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5
WPB 0.3 0.1min 0.058 0.05 0.29-1.06 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.06;Nb:0.02 415-585 240 22 197
WPC 0.35 0.1min 0.058 0.05 0.29-1.06 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.06;Nb:0.02 485-655 275 22 197
WP1 0.28 0.1-0.5 0.045 0.045 0.3-0.9 0.44-0.65 380-550 205 22 197
WP12 CL1 0.05-0.2 0.6 0.045 0.045 0.3-0.8 0.8-1.25 0.44-0.65 415-585 220 22 197
WP12 CL2 0.05-0.2 0.6 0.045 0.045 0.3-0.8 0.8-1.25 0.44-0.65 485-655 275 22 197
WP11 CL1 0.05-0.15 0.5-1 0.03 0.03 0.3-0.6 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 415-585 205 22 197
WP11 CL2 0.05-0.2 0.5-1 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.8 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 485-655 275 22 197
WP11 CL3 0.05-0.2 0.5-1 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.8 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 520-690 310 22 197
WP22 CL1 0.05-0.15 0.5 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.6 1.9-2.6 0.87-1.13 415-585 205 22 197
WP22 CL3 0.05-0.15 0.5 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.6 1.9-2.6 0.87-1.13 520-690 310 22 197
WP5 CL1 0.15 0.5 0.03 0.04 0.3-0.6 4-6 0.44-0.65 415-585 205 22 217
WP5 CL3 0.15 0.5 0.03 0.04 0.3-0.6 4-6 0.44-0.65 520-690 310 22 217
WP9 CL1 0.15 1 0.03 0.03 0.3-0.6 8-10 0.9-1.1 415-585 205 22 217
WP9 CL3 0.15 1 0.03 0.03 0.3-0.6 8-10 0.9-1.1 520-690 310 22 217
WPR 0.2 0.05 0.045 0.4-1.06 1.6-2.24 435-605 315 22/28 217
WP91 0.08-0.12 0.2-0.5 0.01 0.02 0.3-0.6 8-9.5 0.4 0.85-1.05 See sdandard 585-760 415 20 248
WP911 0.09-0.13 0.1-0.5 0.01 0.02 0.3-0.6 8.5-10.5 0.4 0.9-1.1 See sdandard 620-840 440 20 248

Notes:

  • For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified C maximum, an increase of 0.06% Mn above the specified maximum will be permitted, up to a maximum of 1.35%.
  • The sum of Cu, Ni, Cr, and Mo shall not exceed 1.00%.
  • The sum of Cr and Mo shall not exceed 0.32%.
  • The maximum carbon equivalent (C.E.) shall be 0.50, based on heat analysis and the formula C.E.=C+Mn/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15.

Mechanical properties of ASTM A234

Tensile Requirements WPB WPC, WP11CL2 WP11CL1  WP11CL3
Tensile Strength, min, ksi[MPa] 60-85 70-95 60-85  75-100
(0.2% offset or 0.5% extension-under-load) [415-585] [485-655] [415-585]  [520-690]
Yield Strength, min, ksi[MPa] 32 40 30 45
[240] [275] [205] [310]

What is the manufacturing process of ASTM A234 WPB pipe fittings?

The WPB is not short hand for any process. It is simply an identifier developed by ASTM. The fittings in question are manufactured in the same manner as the companion pipe for this specification.

In very large sizes, the fittings may be manufactured in pieces and welded together as is the case for many large fittings.

The term used for the manufacturing is called “wrought” which means it is worked as opposed to being cast or forged.

As to the W standing for weldable, I’m not sure that is correct since that are many, many pipe fittings that are weldable but carry designations other than a W. Note the reference below.

ASTM A234/A234M-07

Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
This standard covers wrought carbon steel fittings of seamless and welded construction which are manufactured to the dimensional specifications of ASME B16.9 and B16.28. These fittings are primarily for use in pressure piping and in pressure vessel fabrication for service at moderate and elevated temperatures.

Referenced Documents

ASTM Standards

  • A216/A216M Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High-Temperature Service
  • A217/A217M Specification for Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-Containing Parts, Suitable for

High-Temperature Service

  • A960/A960M Specification for Common Requirements for Wrought Steel Piping Fittings

ASME Standards

  • B16.11 Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded
  • ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
  • SectionIX Welding Qualifications

DOWNLOAD STANDARD

Even welding and smooth weld line, can be substitute for seamless tube after drawing and cold rolling.

ASME B16.9

This Standard covers overall dimensions, tolerances, ratings, testing, and markings for wrought factory-made buttwelding fittings in sizes NPS 1 ⁄ 2 through 48 (DN 15 through 1200).

Fittings may be made to special dimensions, sizes, shapes, and tolerances by agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

ASTM A234/ SA234M

ASTM A234/ SA234M Standard specification for pipe fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for moderate and high temperature service.

These fittings are for use in pressure piping and in pressure vessel fabrication for service at moderate and elevated temperatures.




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