Fitting

A fitting is a weldable pipe fitting that allows for change of direction of flow, to branch off, reduce pipe size or attach auxiliary equipment.

Pipe fitting is the occupation of installing or repairing piping or tubing systems that convey liquid, gas, and occasionally solid materials.


Stainless pipe fittings
Stainless steel pipe fittings belonging to one of the fittings..
Fin tube
Fin tube
A fin tube is a tube that has small fins around the outside surface.
Expansion joints
Expansion joints are devices containing a bellows membrane...
ANSI B16.9 ASTM A234 WPB Eccentric Reducer
ANSI B16.9 Reducer
ANSI B16.9 ASTM A234 WPB Eccentric Reducer with A234 WPB
Piping Expansion Joint Construction

Most common ASTM A234 WPB fittings

ASTM A234 WPB is the Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service.

ASTM A234 WPB Concentric Reducer
ASTM A234 WPB Concentric Reducer
ASTM A234 WPB Concentric Reducers are used for connecting pipes of different diameters and find wide applications in various chemicals, construction industries, paper, cement & ship builders.
ANSI B16.9 ASTM A234 WPB Eccentric Reducer
ANSI B16.9 ASTM A234 WPB Eccentric Reducer
ANSI B16.9 ASTM A234 WPB Eccentric Reducer with A234 WPB and 1/2 to 56-inch Size (DN15 to DN1400)
ANSI B16.9 ASTM A234 WPB Eccentric Reducer
A234 WPB Large Diameter Pipe Cap
A234 WPB Large Diameter Pipe Cap manufactured using superior grade raw materials.
A234 WP11 elbow
A324 WP11 elbow
A324 WP11 elbow is the manufacturing process of ASTM A234 WPB.

Fittings applications and markets

Pipe and pipe fittings go hand-in hand. Just as pipes are used for a variety of residential, public and industrial applications, so also the pipe fittings. No pipes can be connected without the use of proper fittings and flanges. Pipe fittings allow pipes to be installed and connected or joined where necessary and terminated in the right place.

Such as Oil and gas industries, Midstream, Shipbuilding, Power plants, Food plants, Pharmaceuticals, etc.

Pipe fittings include a wide range of products in various shapes, sizes and materials. With rapid developments in the field of industrial fittings and continuous research work in this industry, various new products are manufactured. Some fittings have certain special features so that they can be fabricated on different principles like hydraulics, pneumatic depending on the end usage. Fittings include a comprehensive range of products depending on various applications in which they are applied.

Fittings are used wherever liquids, gases, chemicals and other fluids are created, processed, transported, or used.

There is no end to applications of pipe fittings so long there is no end to the applications of pipes . While the list of piping applications continues to expand, its strength, flexibility, very good flow rates and high chemical resistance are qualities which are uniquely suited for the movement or transfer of liquids, steam, solids and air from one point to another.

With piping, pipe fittings have many other uses like as follows:

  • The transfer of extremely hazardous materials such as chemical and waste.
  • Protection of sensitive equipment from high pressures.
  • Protection from corrosion and other extreme weather conditions.
  • Resistance to household and industrial chemicals.

Considering the various purposes of pipe fittings, these pipe fittings are used in various industries like:

  • Chemical / Petrochemical
  • Municipal
  • Food, Beverage, and Dairy
  • Oil and Gas
  • Power
  • Process Instrumentation
  • Pulp and Paper
  • Semiconductor
  • Marine & dredging
  • Sanitation

Fitting specification, Standard and identification

There are different varieties of pipe fittings made of various materials and available in various shapes and sizes.

How a Butt Weld Fitting is Made?

There are numerous processes for manufacturing butt weld fittings, several examples listed as follows.

TEES:
Extrusion method (Hot Forming)

The hot-extrusion process consists of enclosing a piece of metal, heated to forging temperature, in a chamber called a "container" having a die at one end with an opening of the shape of the desired finished section, and applying pressure to the metal through the opposite end of the container.

ELBOWS:
Mandrel method (Hot Forming)

One of the most common manufacturing methods for manufacturing Elbows from pipes. After heating the raw material, it is pushed over a die called "mandrel" which allows the pipe to expand and bend simultaneously.

CAPS:
Deep Drawing method

One of the most common manufacturing methods for caps, where plate is cut out in a circle and formed by deep drawing.

Fitting Materials

Fittings are always connected with pipe hence, Chemical and Mechanical property of these materials to match with pipe material

  • Fittings are manufactured in different material grade to match pipe material such as carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel and exotic material such as titanium, copper alloy etc.
  • ASME B16.9 &16.28 provides list of material used to manufactured wrought fittings
  • ASME B16.34 Provides list of material used to manufactured forged fittings as per ASME B16.11
    • ASME B16.9 is standard for – Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings & ASME B16.28 is standard for – Butt-Welded Short Radius Elbows & Returns Bends
    • ASME B16.11 is standard for – Forged steel socket welding & threaded fittings which refer another ASME standard for material which is standard for ASME B16.34 Flanged, Threaded, And Welding End Valves

Material grade shall be prefixed with WP if fittings are made as per ASME B16.9 & B16.28

  • Commonly used material grades for wrought fittings are listed here
  • For Carbon Steel:- ASTM A234Gr.WPA/B, ASTM A420 Gr.WPL6
  • For Alloy Steel:- ASTM A234 WP1 /WP5 /WP7 /WP9 /WP11 /WP12 /WP22
  • And for Stainless Steel:- ASTM A403 WP304 /WP304L /WP304H /WP316 / WP316L/ WP321/ WP347
End connections

There are four different type of connections that are used for fittings:

  • Butt Weld Fittings – Probably the most common type of fitting. They are easily manufactured and are easily installed. Butt weld fittings can be connected directly to each other. This is called fitting make up.
  • Flanged Fittings – Flanged fittings are piping components where the flange is an integral component of the fitting. These are most often used in water treatment applications or lined piping where welding would be destructive to the liner.
  • Socket Weld Fittings – These fittings have a socket weld connection on each end. They might be used for smaller diameter piping. These fittings utilize a single fillet weld to join the piping with the fitting.
  • Threaded Fittings – Threaded fittings are generally four inches and smaller. The reason for this size constraint is the pipe end needs to be threaded with a male type connection and die sizes are unobtainable in the larger diameters.
Fitting Weights
ASME buttweld fitting specifications do not specify weights for fittings.

Weights quoted in the tables on this page are based on manufacturers information and should be considered as approximate and provided as a guide only (fitting weights can vary considerably between manufacturers due to differences in construction).

Three groups:

Fittings are divided into three groups:

  • Buttweld (BW) fittings whose dimensions, dimensional tolerances et cetera are defined in the ASME B16.9 standards. Light-weight corrosion resistant fittings are made to MSS SP43.
  • Socket Weld (SW) fittings Class 3000, 6000, 9000 are defined in the ASME B16.11 standards.
  • Threaded (THD), screwed fittings Class 2000, 3000, 6000 are defined in the ASME B16.11 standards.
ASTM A420/A420M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
WPL6 0.3 0.15-0.3 0.04 0.035 0.6-1.35 0.3 0.4 0.12 Cb:0.02;V:0.08 415-585 240 22
WPL9 0.2 0.03 0.03 0.4-1.06 1.6-2.24 435-610 315 20
WPL3 0.2 0.13-0.37 0.05 0.05 0.31-0.64 3.2-3.8 450-620 240 22
WPL8 0.13 0.13-0.37 0.03 0.03 0.9 8.4-9.6 690-865 515 16
ASTM A815/A815M
Steel No. Standard No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
UNS S31803 ASTM A815/A815M 0.03 0.1 0.02 0.03 2 21-23 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 N:0.08-0.2 620-795 450 25 290
ASTM A105/A105M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
A105 0.35 0.1-0.35 0.04 0.035 0.6-1.05 0.3 0.4 0.12 V:0.05;Nb:0.02 485 250 22 187 ψ%:30
ASTM A182/A182M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
F11 CL1 0.05-0.15 0.5-1 0.03 0.03 0.3-0.6 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 415 205 20 121-174 ψ%:45
F11 CL2 0.1-0.2 0.5-1 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.8 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 485 275 20 143-207 ψ%:30
F11 CL3 0.1-0.2 0.5-1 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.8 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 515 310 20 156-207 ψ%:30
F12 CL1 0.05-0.15 0.5 0.045 0.045 0.3-0.6 0.8-1.25 0.44-0.65 415 205 20 121-174 ψ%:45
F12 CL2 0.1-0.2 0.1-0.6 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.8 0.8-1.25 0.44-0.65 485 275 20 143-207 ψ%:30
F304 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 8-11 N:0.1 515 205 30 ψ%:50
F304H 0.04-0.1 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 8-11 515 205 30 ψ%:50
F304L 0.035 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 8-13 N:0.1 485 170 30 ψ%:50
F316L 0.035 1 0.03 0.045 2 16-18 10-15 2-3 N:0.1 485 170 30 ψ%:50
F317 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 11-15 3-4 515 205 30 ψ%:50
F321 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 17-19 9-12 Ti:5C%-0.7 515 205 30 ψ%:50
F347 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 17-20 9-13 Ti:10C%-1.1 515 205 30 ψ%:50
ASTM A53/A53M
Steel No. Standard No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
B ASTM A53/A53M 0.3 0.045 0.05 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.08 415 240 See sdandard
ASTM A106
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
B 0.3 0.1min 0.035 0.035 0.29-1.06 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.08 415 240 22
C 0.35 0.1min 0.035 0.035 0.29-1.06 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.08 485 270 20
ASTM A312/A312M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
TP304 0.08 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 18-20 8-11 515 205 35
TP304H 0.04-0.1 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 18-20 8-11 515 205 35
TP304L 0.035 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 18-20 8-13 485 170 35
TP316L 0.035 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 16-18 10-15 2-3 485 170 35
TP321 0.08 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 17-20 9-13 Ti:5C%-0.7 515 205 35
ASTM A515/A515M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
60 0.24 0.13-0.45 0.035 0.035 0.98 415-550 220 25
65 0.28 0.13-0.45 0.035 0.035 0.98 450-585 240 23
70 0.31 0.13-0.45 0.035 0.035 1.3 485-620 260 21



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