JIS G3455 Carbon Steel Pipe

These carbon steel pipes are designed to withstand high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

JIS G3455 Carbon Steel Pipe

These carbon steel pipes are designed to withstand high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, making them suitable for use in applications such as steam boilers, pipelines, and high-pressure equipment. The pipes are manufactured through a seamless process or a welded process, depending on the requirements of the application.

The mechanical properties of JIS G3455 carbon steel pipes vary depending on the grade. For example, STS 370 has a minimum tensile strength of 370 MPa and a minimum yield strength of 215 MPa, while STS 510 has a minimum tensile strength of 510 MPa and a minimum yield strength of 335 MPa.

Scope

This Standard specifies the carbon steel pipes (hereafter referred to as “pipes”) used for high pressure service at temperatures 350°C or lower. This Standard is generally applicable to pipes of outside diameters 10.5mm (nominal diameter 6A or 1/8B) to 660.4 mm (nominal diameter 650A or 26B).

In addition to the items specified in this text, the purchaser can previously designate special quality requirements upon agreement with the manufacturer, which are shown in Annex JA.

NOTE: The International Standard corresponding to this Standard and the symbol of degree of correspondence are as follows:

ISO 9329-2: 1997 Seamless steel tubes for pressure purposes-Technical delivery conditions-Part 2: Unalloyed and alloyed steels with specified elevated temperature properties (MOD)

The symbols which denote the degree of correspondence in the contents between the relevant International Standard and JIS are IDT (identical), MOD (modified), and NEQ (not equivalent) according to ISO/IEe Guide 21-1.

JIS G3455 is a Japanese Industrial Standard that specifies carbon steel pipes for high pressure service at an approximate maximum temperature of 350°C. The standard covers pipes with an outer diameter ranging from 15 to 600 mm, and wall thicknesses from 1 to 50 mm. The JIS G3455 specification includes four different grades of carbon steel pipes: STS 370, STS 410, STS 480, and STS 510.

Chemical Compositions(%) of JIS G3455

Standard Grade C Si Mn P S
JIS G3455 STS370 ≤0.25 0.10-0.35 0.30-1.10 ≤0.035 ≤0.035
STS410 ≤0.30 0.10-0.35 0.30-1.40 ≤0.035 ≤0.035
STS480 ≤0.33 0.10-0.35 0.30-1.50 ≤0.035 ≤0.035

Mechanical properties of JIS G3455

Standard Grade Yield Strength (Mpa) Tensile Strength (Mpa) Elongation (%)
JIS G3455 STS370 ≥216 ≥370 ≥30
STS410 ≥245 ≥410 ≥25
STS480 ≥275 ≥480 ≥25

The tubes shall be manufactured by seamless process, electric resistance welding process, or butt welding process, and those of other grades shall be manufactured by seamless process or electric resistance welding process. The tube shall be as manufactured or as cold-finished condition, or they shall be subjected to appropriate heat treatment.

The tubes shall be practically straight. and the two ends shall be at right angles to the axis of the tube. The tubes shall be free from defects detrimental to practical use.

Normative references

The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this Standard. The most recent editions of the standards (including amendments) indicated below shall be applied.

JIS G3455 Carbon Steel Pipes Dimensions Tolerance

Division  Tolerances on outside diameter Tolerances on wall thickness Tolerances on wall thickness
deviation
Hot-finished seamless steel pipe 50mm Under 【0.5mm ≤4mm Under
+0.6mm
-0.5mm
≤4mm or over
+15%
-12.5%
Within 20%
of wall thickness
50mm or over 200mm to and excl.
【1.6mm
200mm of over 【0.8%
For the pipe 350mm of over, the tolerances on outside diameter may be determined by the
measurement of the length of circumference. shall be 【0.5%.
Cold-finished seamless steel pipe 40mm Under【0.3mm ≤2mm Under
【0.2mm
-
40mm of over 【0.8% ≤2mm or over
【10%
For the pipe 350mm or over, the tolerances on outside diameter may be determined by the
measurement of the length of circumference, In this case, the tolerances shall be 【0.5%.

Japanese Industrial Standards for steel

Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) developed by the organization apply to a wide variety of industrial services and technologies such as automobiles, metallurgy, ships and medical equipment

The method for making cold-drawn seamless pipes involves taking a round “billet” or bar of steel and boring it in the center, turning it, cutting it, heating it to make it more pliable, then “drawing” it (extruding or pulling it) to make it a longer and thinner tube.

Japanese Industrial Standards specifies the standards used for industrial activities in Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and published through Japanese Standards Association.

The Industrial Standardization Law was revised in 2004 and the JIS mark product certification system was changed. Standards are named like “JIS X 0208:1997″, where X denotes area division, followed by four digits (or five digits for some of the standards corresponding ISO standards) and the revision release year.

MTC IN EN 10204.3

EN 10204:2004 is for metallic products-and this norm tell us things about Types of inspection documents. There are no material standards.

Mostly material is defined with its chemical composition and mechanical properties in a public standars like ISO, EN, JIS, ASTM etc.

What is JIS?

Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) specifies the standards used for industrial activities in Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and published through Japanese Standards Association.

Tolerance of JIS seamless pipe

Table 1: Tolerance on Outside Diameter in JIS G3441, G3444, G3445

Standard Tolerance on outside diameter (mm)
JIS G3441
JIS G3444
JIS G3445
=50 ±0.5
>50 ±1%
JIS G3441
JIS G3444
JIS G3445
<50 ±0.25
>50 ±0.5%
JIS G3441
JIS G3445
<25 ±0.12
>25-40 ±0.15
>40-50 ±0.18
>5:.60 ±0.20
>60-70 ±0.23
>70-80 ±0.25
>80-90 ±0.30
>90-100 ±0.40
>100 ±0.5%
JIS G3441 <13 ±0.25
>13-25 ±0.40
>25-40 ±0.60
>40-65 ±0.80
>65-90 ±1.00
>90-140 ±1.20
>140 By agreement

Table 2: Tolerance on Wall Thickness in JIS G3441, G3444, G3445

Standard Tolerance on wall thickness (mm)
JIS G3441
JIS G3444
JIS G3445
<=4 -0.5,+0.6
>4 -12.5%, +15%
JIS G3441
JIS G3444
JIS G3445
<=3 ±0 .3
>3 ±10%
JIS G3441
JIS G3445
<=2 ±0.15
>2 ±8%

Table 3: Tolerance on Outside Diameter and Wall Thickness in JIS G3454

Process Tolerance on outside diameter Tolerance on wall thickness
<40A ±0.5mm <=4mm +0.6mm
-0.5%
>50A, <125A ±1%
Hot Rolled
Seamless Pipes
150A ±1.6mm >4mm +15%
-12.5%
>200A ±0.8%
More than 350mm,the
Tolerance is ±0.5%
Cold Drawn
Seamless Pipes
and Electric
Resistant
Welded Pipes
<25A ±0.3mm <=3mm ±0.3mm
>32A ±0.8% >3mm ±10%
But more than 350mm, the
Tolerance is ±0.5%

Table 4: Tolerance on Outside Diameter and Wall Thickness in JIS G3455, G3456, G3458, G3460

Process Tolerance on outside diameter Tolerance on wall thickness
Hot Rolled
Seamless Pipes
<=50mm ±0.5mm <=4mm ±0.5mm
>50-160mm ±1%
>160-200mm ±1.6mm >4mm ±12.5%
>200mm ±0.8%
More that 350mm, the
Tolerance is ±0.5%
Cold Drawn
Seamless Pipes
and Electric Resistant
Welded Pipes
<=40mm ±0.3mm <=2mm ±0.2mm
>40mm ±0.8% >2mm ±10%
More than 350 mm the
Tolerance is ±0.5%

Table 5: Tolerance on Outside Diameter in JIS G3461, G3462, G3464

O.D. Tolerance on outside diameter
Hot rolled seamless pipes Seamless pipes through quench and normalized Cold drawn seamless pipes throng, the hot treatment except quench and normalized Electric welded pipes except cold drawn Cold drawn electric welded pipes
mm
<=25 +0.4
-0.8
±0.25 ±0.10 ±0.15 ±0.10
>25.40 ±0.25 ±0.15 ±0.20 ±0.15
>40-50 ±0.25 ±0.20 ±0.25 ±0.20
>50.60 ±0.25 ±0.25 ±0.30 ±0.25
>60-80 ±0.30 ±0.30 ±0.40 ±0.30
>80.100 ±0.40 ±0.40 -0.60,+0.40 ±0.40
>100-120 +0.4
-1.2
-0.60,+0.40 -0.60,+0.40 -0.80,+0.40 -0.60,+0.40
>120-160 -0.80,+0.40 -0.80,+0.40 -1.00,+0.40 -0.80,+0.40
>160-200 -1.8,+0.4 -1.20,+0.40 -1.20,+0.40 -1.20,+0.40 -1.20,+0.40
>200 -2.4,+0.4 -1.60,+0.40 -1.60,+0.40 -1.60,+0.40 -1.60,+0.40

Table 6: Tolerance on Wall Thickness in JIS G3461, G3462, G3464

Wall
thickness
(mm)
Hot rolled seamless pipe Cold drawn seamless pipe Electric welded pipe
O.D(mm) O.D(mm) O.D(mm)
<=100 >100 <=40 >40 <=40 >40
(%)
<=2 -0,+0.4mm +22
-0
-0,+0.3mm +18
0
>2-2.4 -0,+40 +20
-,0
+18
-0
>2.4-3.8 -0,+35 -0,+35
>3.8-4.6 -0,+23 -0,+33
>4.6 -0,+28 -0,+28

Table 7: Tolerance on the Length in JIS G3461, G3462, G3464

Item Tolerance an length
OD<50mm <7m -0, +7mm
>=7m Every 3m increase in length, the plus tolerance be increased by 3mm with a maximum of 15mm
OD>=50mm <7m -0, +10mm
>=7m Every 3m increase in length, the plus tolerance be increased by 3mm with a maximum of 15mm
OD: Outside Diameter

Table 8: Tolerance on Outside Diameter in JIS G3465

Process Tolerance on outside diameter (mm)
Hot Rolled <=50 ±0.5
>50 ±1%
Cold Drawn <=40 ±0.2
>40 ±0.5%

JIS Number and Corrensponding Foreign Standards

JIS ASTM BS DIN NF ISO Index Number
Standard Number Grade Tupe Standard Number Grade Tupe Standard Number Grade Tupe Standard Number Grade Tupe Standard Number Grade Tupe Standard Number Grade Tupe
G3456 STPT370
(STPT38)

C A106 GrA C 3602 HFS360 C 17175 St35.8 C A49-211 TU37b C 2604/2 TS5 C C004
" CFS360 C 17177 St37.8 C A49-213 TU37c C 2604/3 TW9H C
" ERW360 C A49-243 TU37c C
" CEW360 C
STPT410
(STPT42) 
C A106 GrB C 3602 HFS410 C 17175 St45.8 C A49-211 TU42b C 2604/2 TS9H C
" CFS410 C 17177 St42.8 C A49-213 TU42c C
" ERW410 C A49-243 TU42c C
" CEEW410 C
STPT480
(STPT42)
C A106 GrC C 3602 HFS460 C A49-211 TU48b C 2604/2 TS14 C
" CFS460 C A49-213 TU48c C
" ERW460 C
" CEEW460 C

In the Meiji era, private enterprises were responsible for making standards. However, the Japanese government did have standards and specification documents for procurement purposes for certain articles, such as munitions. These were summarized to form an official standard old JES in 1921. During World War II, simplified standards were established to increase matériel output. The Industrial Standardization Law was enacted in 1949, which forms the legal foundations for the present Japanese Industrial Standards.

Measurement size & Testing

Packing

Delivery


Other Range of JIS standards for steel pipes

JIS seamless pipe according to alloy, stainless steel or carbon. It tests steel’s properties, hardness, resistance to corrosion, pitting, heat treating processes and others. The results are listed in a main JIS steel grade for steel pipe as below.

JIS G3439

Seamless Steel Oil Well, Casing, Tubing and Drill Pipe
Steel grade: STO-G, STO-H, STO-J, STO-N, STO-C, STO-D, STO-E
Application: Seamless Steel Oil Well, Casing, Tubing and Drill Pipe

JIS G3441

Steel grade:SCr 420TK, SCM415TK, SCM418TK, SCM420TK, SCM430TK, SCM435TK, SCM440TK
Application:Alloy Steel Tubes for General Structural Purpose

JIS G3444

Steel grade: STK 30, STK 41, STK 50, STK 51, STK 55
Application: Carbon Steel Tubes for General Structural Purpose
Dimension Range: 21.7-1016.0 mm

Application: Carbon Steel Tubes for Machine Structural Purposes

JIS G3455

Steel grade: STS 38, STS 42, STS 49
Application: Carbon Steel Pipes for High Pressure Service
Dimension Range: 10.5-660.4 mm

JIS G3456

Steel grade: STPT 38, STPT 42, STPT 49
Application: Carbon Steel Pipes for High Temperature Service
Dimension Range:10.5-660.4 mm

JIS G3460

Steel grade:STPL 39, STPL 46, STPL 70
Application: Steel Pipes for Low Temperature Service
Dimension Range:10.5-660.4 mm

JIS G3464

Steel grade: STBL 39, STBL46, STBL 70
Application: Steel Heat Exchanger Tubes for Low Temperature Service
Dimension Range: 15.9-139.8 mm

JIS G3465

Steel grade: STM-055, STM-C65, STM-R60, STM-1170, STM-1180, STM-R85
Application: Seamless Steel Tubes for Drilling
Dimension Range: Casing: 43-142mm / Hollow Pipes: 34-180mm / Drilling:33.5-50mm

JIS G3467

Steel grade: STF 42, STFAl2, STFA22, STFA23, 5TFA24, STFA23, STFA26
Application:Steel Tubes for Fired Heater
Dimension Range:60.5-267.4mm

JIS G 3101 SS400

JIS G 3101 SS400 is one of the most commonly used hot rolled general structural steel.
SS400 is a Japanese brand of ordinary steel products


Process

Cold drawn seamless steel tube deformed process

Cold Drawn Seamless Mechanical Tubing (CDS) is a cold drawn 1018/1026 steel tube which offers uniform tolerances, enhanced machinability and increased strength and tolerances compared to hot-rolled products.

Cold drawn seamless steel tube deformed process

Cold drawn steel tube is with hot-rolled steel coil as raw material, and tandem cold rolling pickled to remove oxide scale, its finished rolling hard roll, rolling hard volumes due to the continuous cold deformation caused by cold hardening strength, hardness increased indicators declined tough plastic, stamping performance will deteriorate, which can only be used for simple deformation of the parts.

Rolling hard roll can be used as the raw material of the hot-dip galvanizing plant, hot dip galvanizing line set annealing line. Rolling hard roll weight is generally 6 to 13.5 tons, the coil diameter of 610mm.

Hot rolled seamless steel pipe deformed process

Hot-rolled seamless steel pipe production base deformation process can be summarized as three stages: perforation, extension and finishing.

Hot rolled seamless steel pipe deformed process

The main purpose of the perforation process is to become a solid round billet piercing hollow shell. Capillary in the specifications, accuracy and surface quality can not meet the requirements of the finished product, further improvements are needed to deform the metal through. The main purpose of the stretching machine is further reduced sectional view (main compression wall) for a larger axial extension, so that the capillary improved dimensional accuracy, surface quality and organizational performance.

After stretching machine rolled steel pipe shortage collectively need further molding mill in order to achieve the requirements of the finished pipe. Rolled steel due to pass in the method widely used in the production of seamless steel tubes.

So far, due to the method pass rolling steel can be divided into two categories: core pension without rolling rolling (hollow body rolling), and with the mandrel. Sizing machines, reducing mill and stretch reducing mill belonging to the hole without mandrel type continuous rolling mills are generally coffin. Its main purpose is to reduce the diameter of the deformation process or sizing get finished steel, the wall thickness of process control, can make thinning, thickening or nearly unchanged.

All the traditional hole-type rolling machine with mandrel belong to extend machine. The main purpose is to reduce the deformation process perforated capillary wall thickness and outer diameter roll passes in the deformation zone and the mandrel posed, for a larger axial extension. At the same time a certain improvement in the organization, performance, accuracy, surface quality.

Cut to Length

Before cutting pipe and tubing

No matter the material, measure the diameter of the pipe or tube to be cut to ensure that you use the right-size tube cutter for the job. When determining how to make a straight cut, use a tape measure and a pencil or other writing instrument to mark on the surface where you want to cut. If possible, mark around the circumference of a pipe, especially when cutting with a handsaw. Ensure that a cut is as straight as possible by securing the pipe with a vise, clamp, miter box or even duct tape to keep the length from shifting out of place while cutting.

After cutting pipe and tubing

  • Unless a cut is perfectly clean, you should expect to remove burrs from around the edge, especially after sawing.
  • Use a deburring tool to clean the edge after tube cutting.
  • You may opt to use a metal file on the cut of a metal pipe.
Cut to length

The main manufacturing technology of seamless carbon steel pipe

1.Plug rolling production

The production equipment consists of punching machine, automatic pipe rolling machine, coiling machine, sizing machine and reducing machine. The round tube is inserted into the hollow of the thick-walled tube, and the axes of the two rollers form an oblique angle with the rolling line. In recent years, the inclination angle has increased from 6° to 12° to 13° to 17°, increasing the speed of the punch. When producing structural seamless pipe with a diameter greater than 250mm, secondary perforation is used to reduce the thickness of the hollow billet wall. New technologies have also been developed to enhance the perforation process and improve the quality of the capillary.

2. Continuous rolling production

The production equipment includes punching machine, continuous rolling mill, and tension reduction machine. The round billet is pierced into a hollow billet, then inserted into the mandrel, and continuously rolled by 7 to 9 two-roll mills. After rolling, the mandrel bar is taken out and reheated to reduce tension. In 2014, the annual output of 140mm continuous rolling mills is 0.4 to 600,000 tons, which is 2 to 4 times that of plug mills. The characteristics of this unit are suitable for the production of steel pipes with a diameter of 168mm or less. However, the equipment investment is large, the installed capacity is large, and the processing and manufacturing are complex.

3. Three-roll rolling production

Three-roll rolling production is mainly used to produce thick-walled seamless steel pipes with high dimensional accuracy. The wall thickness accuracy of the seamless steel pipe produced by this manufacturing process can reach plus or minus 5%, and the pipe accuracy is twice that of the seamless steel pipe produced by other methods. This manufacturing technique developed rapidly with the invention of the new three-high skew rolling mill in the 1960s. The new type of rolling mill is characterized by rapidly rotating the inlet rotary rack to change the expansion angle of the tail, thereby preventing the triangle from appearing at the tail, and expanding the ratio of the outer diameter to the wall thickness of the production varieties from 12 to 35, which can not only produce thin-walled seamless welded steel pipes , but also can improve production capacity.

4. Extrusion tube production

The peeled round base is first perforated or expanded, then heated by induction heating or a salt bath, coated with lubricant, and loaded into the extruder. The metal is squeezed into the pipe through the circular gap between the mandrel and the tip of the pen. This manufacturing process is mainly used for the production of superalloy tubes, specialty tubes, composite tubes and non-ferrous metal tubes. It has a wide range of production but low volumes. The production of extruded tubes has also grown in recent years due to improvements in die materials, lubricants and extrusion speeds.

5. Cold rolling (cold drawing) production

This manufacturing process is used to produce small-diameter precision-shaped thin-walled low-carbon steel pipes. It is characterized by the use of multi-stage cycle manufacturing technology. In the 1960s, it began to develop in the direction of high speed, multi-line, long stroke and long tube blank. In addition, small roller mills have also been developed, mainly for the production of precision tubes with a thickness of less than 1mm. The cold rolling equipment is complex, the tool processing is difficult, and the specification conversion is not flexible. And usually a combined process of cold rolling and cold drawing is used, that is, cold rolling is used to reduce the wall thickness to obtain larger deformation, and cold drawing technology is used to obtain various specifications.


Application

Alloy steel pipes are ideally suitable for chemical, petrochemicals, and other energy-related applications.

The alloy steel pipe adopts high quality carbon steel, alloy structural steel and stainless & heat resisting steel as raw material through hot rolling or cold drawn to be made.

Alloy steel can be used in process area where carbon steel has limitation such as

  • High-temperature services such as heater tubes
  • Low-temperature services such as cryogenic application
  • Very high presser service such as steam header

As an important element of steel products, alloy steel pipe can be divided into seamless steel pipe and welded steel pipe according to the manufacturing technique and tube billet shape.

Here you can see the common alloy steel grade that you will come across.

  • For Pipes: ASTM A335 Gr P1, P5, P11, P9
  • For Wrought Fittings: ASTM A234 Gr.WP5, WP9, WP11
  • For Forged Fittings: ASTM A182 F5, F9, F11 etc.

Why the application of alloy steel pipe is wider than others

application

There are many kinds of materials used for transport in industrial production. Specifically we will have more choices and it is not limited to the use of alloy steel pipe. But even in the face of more choices, many people tend to choose alloy steel pipe. People make their own choices will have their own reasons. This means the alloy steel pipe application has its own advantages. Compared with transmission lines made of other materials, after it meets the basic application requirements, its quantity is lighter. Then in the practical application of alloy steel pipe, it will have more advantages because of this. Besides its physical characteristic advantage, it also has economic advantages. The wide application of alloy steel pipe is with kinds of reasons. So in practical usage, we can exploit the advantages to the full, in this way can we get more profits in these applications of alloy steel pipe.

What requirements should alloy steel pipe application meet

The transportation of kinds of gases or liquids in production needs to rely on alloy steel pipe. This shows that the actual role of alloy steel pipe application is important. High temperature resistant and low temperature resistant is the tolerance of temperature. In the practical application of alloy steel pipe, there will be many materials need to be transported. However their temperatures are not the same. So this can be the basic requirement to alloy steel pipe. It needs more corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistant material is the best material during transporting, because it is corrosion resistant. So it can be used in more occasions. And it is definitely very convenient for users.

The biggest advantages of alloy steel pipe

Can be 100% recycled, environmentally friendly, energy-saving, resource conservation, national strategy, national policy to encourage the expansion of the field of application of high-pressure alloy pipe. Of alloy steel pipe total consumption accounted steel in the proportion is only half of the developed countries, to expand the field of use of the alloy steel pipe to provide a wider space for the development of the industry. The future needs of the average annual growth of China’s high-pressure alloy steel pipe long products up to 10-12%.

Specification, standard and identification of alloy steel pipes

Alloy Steel pipe contains substantial quantities of elements other than carbon such as nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium and limited amounts of other commonly accepted elements such as manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorous.

Industries We Serve

Our team of experienced sales specialists proudly partners with gas and chemical processors, power generation plants, oil refineries, and related industries to offer piping components and value-added services.

The biggest advantages of alloy steel pipe can be 100% recycled, environmentally friendly, energy-saving, resource conservation, national strategy, national policy to encourage the expansion of the field of application of high-pressure alloy pipe. Of alloy tube total consumption accounted steel in the proportion is only half of the developed countries, to expand the field of use of the alloy tube to provide a wider space for the development of the industry. According to the Chinese Special Steel Association alloy pipe Branch Expert Group, the future needs of the average annual growth of China’s high-pressure alloy pipe long products up to 10-12%.


Inspection

Chemical composition inspection, mechanical properties test(tensile strength,yield strength, elongation, flaring, flattening, bending, hardness, impact test), surface and dimension test,no-destructive test, hydrostatic test.

PMI

identification of the chemical composition of the metal used to manufacture the fitting. Uses PMI sensors, including X-ray fluorescence or optical emission spectrometry.

PMI
PMI
PMI
PMI
PMI
PMI

Size measurement

Size measurement
Size measurement
Size measurement
Size measurement
Size measurement

Seamless pipes with compound bevels as per ASME B16-25 And ASTM A333

ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe
ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe
ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe
ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe
ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe
ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe
ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe
ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe
ASTM A333 Grade 8 Seamless Pipe

Delivery

Steel pipe delivery status(condition)

Steel pipe delivery status(condition): cold / hard (BK), cold / soft (BKW), after cold stress relief annealing (BKS), annealing (GBK), normalized (NBK).

Condition on delivery of steel pipe

Term Symbol Explanation
Cold-finished/hard (cold-finished as-drawn) BK No heat treatment after the last cold-forming process. The tubes therefore have only low deformability.
Cold-finished/soft (lightly cold-worked) BKW After the last heat treatment there is a light finishing pass (cold drawing) With proper subsequent processing, the tube can be cold-formed (e.g. bent, expanded) within certain limits.
Annealed GBK After the final cold-forming process the tubes are annealed in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.
Normalized NBK The tubes are annealed above the upper transformation point in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.

The general cold strip mills, volume should go through continuous annealing (CAPL unit) to eliminate cold hardening and rolling stress, or batch annealing reach the mechanical properties of the corresponding standard specifies. Cold rolled steel surface quality, appearance, dimensional accuracy better than hot-rolled plate, and right-rolled thin product thickness is about 0.18mm, so the majority of users favor.

Cold rolled steel coil substrate products deep processing of high value-added products. Such as electro-galvanized, hot dip galvanized, electro-galvanized fingerprint resistant, painted steel roll damping composite steel, PVC laminating steel plates, etc., so that the excellent quality of these products has a beautiful, high resistance to corrosion, has been widely used.

Cold rolled steel coil finishing after annealing, cut the head, tail, trimming, flattening, smooth, heavy volume, or longitudinal clipboard. Cold-rolled products are widely used in automobile manufacturing, household electrical appliances, instruments, switches, buildings, office furniture and other industries. Steel plate strapping package weight of 3 to 5 tons. Flat sub-volume typically 3 to 10 tons / volume. Coil diameter 6m.

Packing

Bare packing/bundle packing/crate packing/wooden protection at the both sides of tubes and suitably protected for sea-worthly delivery or as requested.

There are probably hundreds of different methods for packing a pipe, and most of them have merit, but there are two principles that are vital for any method to work prevent rusting and Sea transportation security.

Steel strips bunding for fixed pipes

Our packing can meet any needs of the customers.

Packing
Packing
Packing
Packing
Packing
Packing

Placing steel pipes into containers

Packing
Packing
Packing
Packing
Packing
Packing
FAQ

Q&A

Our team of experienced sales specialists proudly partners with gas and chemical processors, power generation plants, oil refineries, and related industries to offer piping components and value-added services.

The most important and desired changes in alloy steel are

Alloy steels are made by combining carbon steel with one or several alloying elements, such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum. These metals are added to produce specific properties that are not found in regular carbon steel. The elements are added in varying proportions (or combinations) making the material take on different aspects such as increased hardness, increased corrosion resistance, increased strength, improved formability (ductility); the weldability can also change.

Alloying Elements & Their Effects

Pipes, Tubes and Hollow Sections

Norms

Grade

Alloying Elements

Commonly used alloying elements and their effects are listed in the table given below.

Alloying Elements Effect on the Properties
Chromium Increases Resistance to corrosion   and oxidation. Increases hardenability and wear resistance. Increases high   temperature strength.
Nickel Increases hardenability. Improves   toughness. Increases impact strength at low temperatures.
Molybdenum Increases hardenability, high   temperature hardness, and wear resistance. Enhances the effects of other   alloying elements. Eliminate temper brittleness in steels. Increases high   temperature strength.
Manganese Increases hardenability. Combines   with sulfur to reduce its adverse effects.
Vanadium Increases hardenability, high   temperature hardness, and wear resistance. Improves fatigue resistance.
Titanium Strongest carbide former. Added to   stainless steel to prevent precipitation of chromium carbide.
Silicon Removes oxygen in steel making.   Improves toughness. Increases hardness ability
Boron Increases hardenability. Produces   fine grain size.
Aluminum Forms nitride in nitriding steels.   Produces fine grain size in casting. Removes oxygen in steel melting.
Cobalt Increases heat and wear   resistance.
Tungsten Increases hardness at elevated   temperatures. Refines grain size.

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【H】 Ceramic lined pipe

Ceramic lined pipe is made through self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) technique.

【H】 Cast basalt lined steel pipe

Cast basalt lined steel pipe is composed by lined with cast basalt pipe, outside steel pipe and cement mortar filling between the two layers.

【H】 Ceramic Tile Lined Pipes

Ceramic tile lined pipes have very uniform coating of specially formulated ceramic material that is affixed to the inner of the pipe.

【H】 Rare earth alloy wear-resistant pipe

The material of the rare earth alloy wear-resistant pipe is ZG40CrMnMoNiSiRe, which is also the grade of rare earth alloy steel.

【H】 Tubes Erosion Shields

Tubes Erosion Shields are used to protect boiler tubing from the highly erosive effects of high temperatures and pressures thereby greatly extending tube life.

【H】 ASTM A213 T91 Alloy Tube

The ASTM A213 T91 seamless tubes are primarily used for boiler, superheater, and heat-exchanger.