ASTM A333 Grade 6 Pipe is a low temperature carbon steel pipe and is widely used in low temperature services.Download PDF
ASTM A333 Grade 6 is a low temperature carbon steel pipe and is widely used in low temperature services such as the transportation of water, oil, and gas. It is designed to meet the requirements of various industrial sectors where high-quality pipes are needed for low-temperature services. The seamless pipe has excellent toughness, durability, and strength, making it suitable for various applications in industries such as oil and gas, petrochemical, and power generation. It has a minimum yield strength of 35,000 psi and a tensile strength of 60,000 psi. Additionally, it comes in different sizes and thicknesses to meet the specific requirements of each application.
ASTM A333 Grade 6 Seamless Pipe involved is similar to AISI 4032 low alloy steel. The ASTM A333 Grade 6 low alloy steel seamless pipes are intended for low temperature services with minimum design temperature -45°C [-50°F] requiring notch toughness. They are usually furnished in nominal pipe size (NPS) and nominal wall thickness with schedule numbers in accordance with ASME B36.10M. They are often connected with flanges of ASTM A350 LF2 and butt-weld pipe fittings of ASTM A420 WPL6. Seamless pipes made from ASTM A333 Gr.6 are primarily used for the construction of pipelines in the production of ethylene, propylene, urea, ammonia, and N-P-K compound fertilizer. They may be involved in the scrubber, purification, desulfurization and degreasing processes in oil & gas, petrochemical, coal and pharmaceutical industries. They can also be used for the fabrication of cryogenic equipment as well as refrigeration houses.
ASTM A333 Grade 6 is a low temperature carbon steel pipe used in various industrial applications such as petrochemical plants, power plants, and refineries. It is characterized by its high tensile strength, good toughness, and excellent resistance to corrosion and cracking at low temperatures. ASTM A333 Grade 6 has a nominal carbon content of 0.30% and is designed for temperatures as low as -50°F (-45°C). It is also known as LTCS (low temperature carbon steel) pipe.
Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe size for Low-Temperature Service
|Tensile strength, min, (MPa)||415 Mpa|
|Yield strength, min, (MPa)||240 Mpa|
|Elongation, min, (%), L/T||30/16.5|
the notched-bar impact properties of each set of three impact specimens, when tested at temperature specified shall be not less than the values prescribed.
Several grades of ferritic steel are included. Some product sizes may not be available under this specification because heavier wall thicknesses have an adverse affect on low-temperature impact properties. The pipe shall be made by the seamless or welding process with the addition of no filler metal in the welding operation. All seamless and welded pipes shall be treated to control their microstructure. Tensile tests, impact tests, hydrostatic tests, and nondestructive electric tests shall be made in accordance to specified requirements.
ASTM A333 alloy pipe shall be made by the seamless or welding process with the addition of no filler metal in the welding operation. All seamless and welded pipes shall be treated to control their microstructure. Tensile tests, impact tests, hydrostatic tests, and nondestructive electric tests shall be made in accordance to specified requirements. Some product sizes may not be available under this specification because heavier wall thicknesses have an adverse affect on low-temperature impact properties.
ASTM A333 steel pipe production includes a series of visual surface imperfections to guarantee that they have been properly manufactured. ASTM A333 steel pipe shall be subject to rejection if surface imperfections acceptable are not scattered, but appear over a large area in excess of what is considered a workmanlike finish. The finished pipe shall be reasonably straight.
Surface imperfections that penetrate more than 12½ % of the nominal wall thickness or encroach on the minimum wall thickness shall be considered defects. ASTM A333 steel pipe with such defects shall be given one of the following dispositions:
ASTM A333 Grade 6 pipe is a low-temperature carbon steel pipe that is typically used in applications where the pipe will be exposed to temperatures below -45°C. Because of its superior notch toughness, it performs well in cryogenic conditions and has demonstrated durability at temperatures as low as -452°F. This makes it the perfect candidate for applications where the pipe will be subject to cold temperatures throughout construction and/or operation.
A333 Seamless Pipe (ASME S/A-333) comes in nominal pipe sizes 1/4″ to 24″ O.D.
Pipe dimensions range from 1/2″ to 24″ O.D. for A333 welded pipes (ASME S/A-333).
Carbon and alloy steel pipe with a nominal (average) wall thickness intended for low temperature operation is covered by ASTM A333. There are several ferritic steel grades included in this standard. A106 GR. B Carbon Steel Seamless Pipes Some product sizes may not be available under this specification because heavier wall thicknesses harm low-temperature impact properties.
The difference between ASTM A333 and ASTM A106 is that ASTM A333 is a low-temperature carbon steel pipe that can be used as a structural pipe, while ASTM A106 is a non-structural carbon pipe that is used in high-temperature applications.
The ASTM A106 Gr.B carbon steel Pipe is valued for its high tensile strength and toughness, high oxidation resistance, and prolonged durability. Additionally, the Seamless Pressure ASTM A106 Pipe has wide applications in industries such as the gas and oil industry, water, heating, pipeline construction, and many others.
However, the ASTM A106 Gr.B carbon steel Pipe should be used only at temperatures less than 430°C, as exceeding this temperature can result in a reduction in its mechanical properties. The pipe is therefore not suitable for very high-temperature services.
Cold Drawn Seamless Mechanical Tubing (CDS) is a cold drawn 1018/1026 steel tube which offers uniform tolerances, enhanced machinability and increased strength and tolerances compared to hot-rolled products.
Cold drawn steel tube is with hot-rolled steel coil as raw material, and tandem cold rolling pickled to remove oxide scale, its finished rolling hard roll, rolling hard volumes due to the continuous cold deformation caused by cold hardening strength, hardness increased indicators declined tough plastic, stamping performance will deteriorate, which can only be used for simple deformation of the parts.
Rolling hard roll can be used as the raw material of the hot-dip galvanizing plant, hot dip galvanizing line set annealing line. Rolling hard roll weight is generally 6 to 13.5 tons, the coil diameter of 610mm.
Hot-rolled seamless steel pipe production base deformation process can be summarized as three stages: perforation, extension and finishing.
The main purpose of the perforation process is to become a solid round billet piercing hollow shell. Capillary in the specifications, accuracy and surface quality can not meet the requirements of the finished product, further improvements are needed to deform the metal through. The main purpose of the stretching machine is further reduced sectional view (main compression wall) for a larger axial extension, so that the capillary improved dimensional accuracy, surface quality and organizational performance.
After stretching machine rolled steel pipe shortage collectively need further molding mill in order to achieve the requirements of the finished pipe. Rolled steel due to pass in the method widely used in the production of seamless steel tubes.
So far, due to the method pass rolling steel can be divided into two categories: core pension without rolling rolling (hollow body rolling), and with the mandrel. Sizing machines, reducing mill and stretch reducing mill belonging to the hole without mandrel type continuous rolling mills are generally coffin. Its main purpose is to reduce the diameter of the deformation process or sizing get finished steel, the wall thickness of process control, can make thinning, thickening or nearly unchanged.
All the traditional hole-type rolling machine with mandrel belong to extend machine. The main purpose is to reduce the deformation process perforated capillary wall thickness and outer diameter roll passes in the deformation zone and the mandrel posed, for a larger axial extension. At the same time a certain improvement in the organization, performance, accuracy, surface quality.
Before cutting pipe and tubing
No matter the material, measure the diameter of the pipe or tube to be cut to ensure that you use the right-size tube cutter for the job. When determining how to make a straight cut, use a tape measure and a pencil or other writing instrument to mark on the surface where you want to cut. If possible, mark around the circumference of a pipe, especially when cutting with a handsaw. Ensure that a cut is as straight as possible by securing the pipe with a vise, clamp, miter box or even duct tape to keep the length from shifting out of place while cutting.
After cutting pipe and tubing
The production equipment consists of punching machine, automatic pipe rolling machine, coiling machine, sizing machine and reducing machine. The round tube is inserted into the hollow of the thick-walled tube, and the axes of the two rollers form an oblique angle with the rolling line. In recent years, the inclination angle has increased from 6° to 12° to 13° to 17°, increasing the speed of the punch. When producing structural seamless pipe with a diameter greater than 250mm, secondary perforation is used to reduce the thickness of the hollow billet wall. New technologies have also been developed to enhance the perforation process and improve the quality of the capillary.
The production equipment includes punching machine, continuous rolling mill, and tension reduction machine. The round billet is pierced into a hollow billet, then inserted into the mandrel, and continuously rolled by 7 to 9 two-roll mills. After rolling, the mandrel bar is taken out and reheated to reduce tension. In 2014, the annual output of 140mm continuous rolling mills is 0.4 to 600,000 tons, which is 2 to 4 times that of plug mills. The characteristics of this unit are suitable for the production of steel pipes with a diameter of 168mm or less. However, the equipment investment is large, the installed capacity is large, and the processing and manufacturing are complex.
Three-roll rolling production is mainly used to produce thick-walled seamless steel pipes with high dimensional accuracy. The wall thickness accuracy of the seamless steel pipe produced by this manufacturing process can reach plus or minus 5%, and the pipe accuracy is twice that of the seamless steel pipe produced by other methods. This manufacturing technique developed rapidly with the invention of the new three-high skew rolling mill in the 1960s. The new type of rolling mill is characterized by rapidly rotating the inlet rotary rack to change the expansion angle of the tail, thereby preventing the triangle from appearing at the tail, and expanding the ratio of the outer diameter to the wall thickness of the production varieties from 12 to 35, which can not only produce thin-walled seamless welded steel pipes , but also can improve production capacity.
The peeled round base is first perforated or expanded, then heated by induction heating or a salt bath, coated with lubricant, and loaded into the extruder. The metal is squeezed into the pipe through the circular gap between the mandrel and the tip of the pen. This manufacturing process is mainly used for the production of superalloy tubes, specialty tubes, composite tubes and non-ferrous metal tubes. It has a wide range of production but low volumes. The production of extruded tubes has also grown in recent years due to improvements in die materials, lubricants and extrusion speeds.
This manufacturing process is used to produce small-diameter precision-shaped thin-walled low-carbon steel pipes. It is characterized by the use of multi-stage cycle manufacturing technology. In the 1960s, it began to develop in the direction of high speed, multi-line, long stroke and long tube blank. In addition, small roller mills have also been developed, mainly for the production of precision tubes with a thickness of less than 1mm. The cold rolling equipment is complex, the tool processing is difficult, and the specification conversion is not flexible. And usually a combined process of cold rolling and cold drawing is used, that is, cold rolling is used to reduce the wall thickness to obtain larger deformation, and cold drawing technology is used to obtain various specifications.
Alloy steel pipes are ideally suitable for chemical, petrochemicals, and other energy-related applications.
The alloy steel pipe adopts high quality carbon steel, alloy structural steel and stainless & heat resisting steel as raw material through hot rolling or cold drawn to be made.
Alloy steel can be used in process area where carbon steel has limitation such as
As an important element of steel products, alloy steel pipe can be divided into seamless steel pipe and welded steel pipe according to the manufacturing technique and tube billet shape.
Here you can see the common alloy steel grade that you will come across.
Why the application of alloy steel pipe is wider than others
There are many kinds of materials used for transport in industrial production. Specifically we will have more choices and it is not limited to the use of alloy steel pipe. But even in the face of more choices, many people tend to choose alloy steel pipe. People make their own choices will have their own reasons. This means the alloy steel pipe application has its own advantages. Compared with transmission lines made of other materials, after it meets the basic application requirements, its quantity is lighter. Then in the practical application of alloy steel pipe, it will have more advantages because of this. Besides its physical characteristic advantage, it also has economic advantages. The wide application of alloy steel pipe is with kinds of reasons. So in practical usage, we can exploit the advantages to the full, in this way can we get more profits in these applications of alloy steel pipe.
The transportation of kinds of gases or liquids in production needs to rely on alloy steel pipe. This shows that the actual role of alloy steel pipe application is important. High temperature resistant and low temperature resistant is the tolerance of temperature. In the practical application of alloy steel pipe, there will be many materials need to be transported. However their temperatures are not the same. So this can be the basic requirement to alloy steel pipe. It needs more corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistant material is the best material during transporting, because it is corrosion resistant. So it can be used in more occasions. And it is definitely very convenient for users.
Can be 100% recycled, environmentally friendly, energy-saving, resource conservation, national strategy, national policy to encourage the expansion of the field of application of high-pressure alloy pipe. Of alloy steel pipe total consumption accounted steel in the proportion is only half of the developed countries, to expand the field of use of the alloy steel pipe to provide a wider space for the development of the industry. The future needs of the average annual growth of China’s high-pressure alloy steel pipe long products up to 10-12%.
Alloy Steel pipe contains substantial quantities of elements other than carbon such as nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium and limited amounts of other commonly accepted elements such as manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorous.
Our team of experienced sales specialists proudly partners with gas and chemical processors, power generation plants, oil refineries, and related industries to offer piping components and value-added services.
The biggest advantages of alloy steel pipe can be 100% recycled, environmentally friendly, energy-saving, resource conservation, national strategy, national policy to encourage the expansion of the field of application of high-pressure alloy pipe. Of alloy tube total consumption accounted steel in the proportion is only half of the developed countries, to expand the field of use of the alloy tube to provide a wider space for the development of the industry. According to the Chinese Special Steel Association alloy pipe Branch Expert Group, the future needs of the average annual growth of China’s high-pressure alloy pipe long products up to 10-12%.
Chemical composition inspection, mechanical properties test(tensile strength,yield strength, elongation, flaring, flattening, bending, hardness, impact test), surface and dimension test,no-destructive test, hydrostatic test.
identification of the chemical composition of the metal used to manufacture the fitting. Uses PMI sensors, including X-ray fluorescence or optical emission spectrometry.
Steel pipe delivery status(condition): cold / hard (BK), cold / soft (BKW), after cold stress relief annealing (BKS), annealing (GBK), normalized (NBK).
|Cold-finished/hard (cold-finished as-drawn)||BK||No heat treatment after the last cold-forming process. The tubes therefore have only low deformability.|
|Cold-finished/soft (lightly cold-worked)||BKW||After the last heat treatment there is a light finishing pass (cold drawing) With proper subsequent processing, the tube can be cold-formed (e.g. bent, expanded) within certain limits.|
|Annealed||GBK||After the final cold-forming process the tubes are annealed in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.|
|Normalized||NBK||The tubes are annealed above the upper transformation point in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.|
The general cold strip mills, volume should go through continuous annealing (CAPL unit) to eliminate cold hardening and rolling stress, or batch annealing reach the mechanical properties of the corresponding standard specifies. Cold rolled steel surface quality, appearance, dimensional accuracy better than hot-rolled plate, and right-rolled thin product thickness is about 0.18mm, so the majority of users favor.
Cold rolled steel coil substrate products deep processing of high value-added products. Such as electro-galvanized, hot dip galvanized, electro-galvanized fingerprint resistant, painted steel roll damping composite steel, PVC laminating steel plates, etc., so that the excellent quality of these products has a beautiful, high resistance to corrosion, has been widely used.
Cold rolled steel coil finishing after annealing, cut the head, tail, trimming, flattening, smooth, heavy volume, or longitudinal clipboard. Cold-rolled products are widely used in automobile manufacturing, household electrical appliances, instruments, switches, buildings, office furniture and other industries. Steel plate strapping package weight of 3 to 5 tons. Flat sub-volume typically 3 to 10 tons / volume. Coil diameter 6m.
Bare packing/bundle packing/crate packing/wooden protection at the both sides of tubes and suitably protected for sea-worthly delivery or as requested.
There are probably hundreds of different methods for packing a pipe, and most of them have merit, but there are two principles that are vital for any method to work prevent rusting and Sea transportation security.
Our packing can meet any needs of the customers.
Our team of experienced sales specialists proudly partners with gas and chemical processors, power generation plants, oil refineries, and related industries to offer piping components and value-added services.
Alloy steels are made by combining carbon steel with one or several alloying elements, such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum. These metals are added to produce specific properties that are not found in regular carbon steel. The elements are added in varying proportions (or combinations) making the material take on different aspects such as increased hardness, increased corrosion resistance, increased strength, improved formability (ductility); the weldability can also change.
|Grade||Tensile Strength (MPa）||Yield Point (MPa)||Elongation (%)|
|ASTM A333 Grade 1||≥380||≥205||≥35||≥25|
|ASTM A333 Grade 3||≥450||≥240||≥30||≥20|
|ASTM A333 Grade 4||≥415||≥240||≥30||≥16.5|
|ASTM A333 Grade 6||≥415||≥240||≥30||≥16.5|
|ASTM A333 Grade 7||≥450||≥240||≥30||≥22|
|ASTM A333 Gr. 8||≥690||≥515||≥22|
|ASTM A333 Grade 9||≥435||≥315||≥28|
|ASTM A333 Grade 10||≥550||≥450||≥22|
|ASTM A333 Grade 11||≥450||≥240||≥18|
*The elongation values are furnished on the basis of standard round 2 inch or 50 mm(or 4D) specimens.
*Elongation of Grade 11 is for all walls and small sizes tested in full section.
|Grade||Chemical Composition (%)|
*For Grade 1 and 6, each reduction of 0.01% C below 0.30%, an increase of 0.05 % Mn above 1.06 % would be permitted to a max. of 1.35%.
*For Grade 6, the limit for columbium may be increased up to 0.05 % on heat analysis and 0.06 % on product analysis.
*Generally, the carbon equivalent C.E = [C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15] shall not exceed 0.43% by heat analysis.
|No.||Order No.||Size description|
|O.D. /mm||W.T. /mm||Legnth /m|
|1||A333 Gr.6 A333 Gr.6/X42NS||10-127||1-20||6-12.0|
|Crade||The lowest temperature for strike test|
|ASTM A333 Grade 1||-50||-45|
|ASTM A333 Grade 3||-150||-100|
|ASTM A333 Grade 4||-150||-100|
|ASTM A333 Grade 6||-50||-45|
|ASTM A333 Grade 7||-100||-75|
|ASTM A333 Grade 8||-320||-195|
|ASTM A333 Grade 9||-100||-75|
|ASTM A333 Grade 10||-75||-60|
Commonly used alloying elements and their effects are listed in the table given below.
|Alloying Elements||Effect on the Properties|
|Chromium||Increases Resistance to corrosion and oxidation. Increases hardenability and wear resistance. Increases high temperature strength.|
|Nickel||Increases hardenability. Improves toughness. Increases impact strength at low temperatures.|
|Molybdenum||Increases hardenability, high temperature hardness, and wear resistance. Enhances the effects of other alloying elements. Eliminate temper brittleness in steels. Increases high temperature strength.|
|Manganese||Increases hardenability. Combines with sulfur to reduce its adverse effects.|
|Vanadium||Increases hardenability, high temperature hardness, and wear resistance. Improves fatigue resistance.|
|Titanium||Strongest carbide former. Added to stainless steel to prevent precipitation of chromium carbide.|
|Silicon||Removes oxygen in steel making. Improves toughness. Increases hardness ability|
|Boron||Increases hardenability. Produces fine grain size.|
|Aluminum||Forms nitride in nitriding steels. Produces fine grain size in casting. Removes oxygen in steel melting.|
|Cobalt||Increases heat and wear resistance.|
|Tungsten||Increases hardness at elevated temperatures. Refines grain size.|