Low-Temperature Service Pipe

Low-Temperature Service Pipe

Low temperature steel pipe, also known as low temperature carbon steel pipe, is specifically designed to withstand low temperatures and is commonly used in applications where cryogenic conditions are present.

What is Low temperature pipe?

Low temperature pipe refers to pipes specifically designed to withstand and operate effectively in environments with low temperatures, typically below 0°C (32°F). These pipes are often used in industries such as oil and gas, petrochemicals, and refrigeration, where fluids need to be transported or stored at low temperatures. They are constructed from materials that can maintain their mechanical properties and structural integrity even in extremely cold conditions, ensuring the safe and efficient transportation of fluids. Additionally, low temperature pipes are insulated to prevent heat transfer and maintain the desired temperature of the fluid being transported.

Compared with austenitic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel, there are many comprehensive advantages of ferrite alloy steels for low temperature service, such as higher strength, better rigidity and lower expansion coefificient. There is not only better stability but aslo higher heat transfer efficiency. Tube & pipe for low-temperature service can be widely used in low temperature engineering. ASTM/ASME A/SA-333 Grades allow for cold temperature service to minus 150 degrees F. Material is always provided in the normalized condition at a minimum and Charpy Impact tested to a specific temperature range to assure compliance with the required service temperature.

Low temperature steel grade and its use

This specification covers seamless and welded steel pipe for low temperature service.

Low-Temperature Service Pipe

How do alloying elements affect the performance of cryogenic steels?

We usually call the steel used the temperature range -10 to -273℃ as low-temperature steel or cryogenic steel According to alloying element content and structure, cryogenic steels can be divided into: Aluminum killed C-Mn steel such as 06MnVTi, 06MnVal, 09Mn2Vre, 06MnNb steel, low alloy ferric body low-temperature steel 0.5Ni, 2.5Ni, 3Ni, 3.5Ni, etc., Martensiform low-temperature steels such as 9Ni, 5Ni steel, high alloy austenitic low-temperature steels such as 1Cr18Ni9Ti and 20Mn23Al and so on.

The effect of alloying elements in low-temperature steels mainly refers to its effect on the low-temperature toughness of steels:


Manganese can improve obviously the low-temperature toughness of steel. Manganese mainly exists in the form of solid solution in steel and plays the role of solid solution strengthening. In addition, manganese is an element that enlarges the austenite region and reduces the transformation temperature (A1 and A3). It is easy to obtain fine and ductile ferrite and pearlite grains, which can increase the maximum impact energy and significantly reduce the brittle transition temperature. In general, the Mn/C ratio should be equal to 3, which can not only reduce the brittle transition temperature of steel, but also compensate for the decrease of mechanical properties caused by the decrease of carbon content due to the increase of Mn content.


Nickel can alleviate the tendency of brittle transition and significantly reduce the temperature of brittle transition. The effect of nickel on improving the low-temperature toughness of steel is 5 times that of manganese, that is, the brittle transition temperature decreases by 10℃ with the increase of nickel content by 1%. This is mainly because of nickel with carbon, absorbed by the solid solution and reinforcement, nickel also makes a move to the left point of eutectoid steel eutectoid point to reduce the carbon content, reduce the phase transition temperature (A1 and A2), in comparison with the same carbon content of carbon steel, decrease in the number of ferrite and refining, pearlite populations (the carbon content of pearlite is also lower than carbon steel). The experimental results show that the main reason why nickel increases the toughness at low temperature is that nickel-containing steel has more movable dislocations at low temperature and is easier to cross slip. For example, medium alloy low carbon martensiform low-temperature steel 9Ni steel, has high low-temperature toughness, can be used for -196℃. The 5Ni steel developed on the basis of 9Ni steel has good low-temperature toughness at -162~-196℃.


With the increase of carbon content, the brittle transition temperature of steel increases quickly and the welding property decreases, so the carbon content of low-temperature steel is limited to less than 0.2%.

P, S, Sn, Pb Sb

Phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, tin, lead, antimony: these elements are not conducive to the low-temperature toughness of steel.

They segregate in the grain boundary, which reduces the surface energy and resistance of the grain boundary, and causes the brittle crack to originate from the grain boundary and extend along the grain boundary until the fracture is complete.

Phosphorus can improve the strength of steel, but it will increase the brittleness of steel, especially at low temperatures. The brittle transition temperature is obviously increased, so its content should be strictly limited.

O, H, N

These elements will increase the brittle transition temperature of steel. Deoxidized silicon and aluminum killed steels can improve the toughness at low temperatures, but because silicon increases the brittle transition temperature of steels, aluminum killed steels have a lower brittle transition temperature than silicon killed steels.

Main steel products and application

Steel Grade GB(China) ASME(USA) DIN/EN(Euro) JIS(Jpan) Application
Carbon steel 10 A106 St35.8 STB340 Economizer tube Water wall tube, pipeline, header pipe, Petrochemical furnace tube, heat exchange tube
20 SA-106B St45.8 STB410
20G SA-106C P235GH STB510
20MnG SA-192 P265GH
25MnG SA-210A1
Q345B/C/D/E SA-210C
Mo steel 15MoG SA-209 T1 16Mo3 15Mo3 Water wall tube
Superheater tube
Reheater tube
20MoG SA-209 T1a 16Mo3
SA-209 T1b
Cr-Mo Steel 12Cr1MoG 12Cr1MoV Superheater tube
Reheater tube,
Pipeline, Header pipe, Petrochemical furnace tube, Heat exchange tube
Cr-Mo-V steel 12Cr2MoWVTiB 14MoV63
Cr-Mo-Steel 12CrMoG T11/P11 10CrMo5-5 STB20
Cr-Mo-W Steel 15CrMoG T12/P12 12CrMo4-5 STB22
Cr-Mo Steel 12Cr2MoG T22/P22 10CrMo9-10 STB23 Superheater tube, Reheater tube, Main steam pipe, Pipleline, Header pip, Petrochemical furnace tube, Heat exchange tube
Cr-Mo-W steel 10Cr9Mo1VNbN T23/P23 7CrWVMoNb9-6 STB24
10Cr9MoW2VNbBN T24/P24 7CrMoVTIB10-10 STB25
12Cr1Mo T5/P5 X10CrMoVNb9-1 STB26
12Cr5Mol/NT T9/P9 X10CrWMoVNb9-2
12Cr9Mol/NT T91/P91 X11CrMo5+l/NT
T92/P92 X11CrMo9-1+l/NT
Carbon steel 16MnDG A333-1 STPL380 Tube & pipe for Low-temperature service
Ni steel 10MnDG SA-333-1 STPL450
09DG A333-6
Austentic Stainless steel   ---   AP304  TP304H   ---   Superheater tube, Reheater tube
TP321 TP321H
TP347 TP347H
TP316 TP316H
S30432 TP310HCbN

【H】 Ceramic lined pipe

Ceramic lined pipe is made through self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) technique.

【H】 Cast basalt lined steel pipe

Cast basalt lined steel pipe is composed by lined with cast basalt pipe, outside steel pipe and cement mortar filling between the two layers.

【H】 Ceramic Tile Lined Pipes

Ceramic tile lined pipes have very uniform coating of specially formulated ceramic material that is affixed to the inner of the pipe.

【H】 Rare earth alloy wear-resistant pipe

The material of the rare earth alloy wear-resistant pipe is ZG40CrMnMoNiSiRe, which is also the grade of rare earth alloy steel.

【H】 Tubes Erosion Shields

Tubes Erosion Shields are used to protect boiler tubing from the highly erosive effects of high temperatures and pressures thereby greatly extending tube life.

【H】 ASTM A213 T91 Alloy Tube

The ASTM A213 T91 seamless tubes are primarily used for boiler, superheater, and heat-exchanger.

Ni-Hard Wearback Pipes Ni-Hard Wearback Pipes