ASTM steel pipes

ASTM Seamless Pipe

ASTM steel pipes refer to steel pipes that conform to the standards set by ASTM International (formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials).

ASTM Standards can be purchased as a digital library subscription or individually from ASTM and other qualified standards providers.ASTM International has developed numerous standards for steel pipes, tubes, and fittings. These standards cover various aspects such as dimensions, materials, testing methods, and performance requirements. Some commonly referenced ASTM standards for steel pipes include ASTM A53/A53M, ASTM A106, ASTM A312/A312M, ASTM A789/A790, and ASTM A847. ASTM steel pipes are widely available from manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers worldwide. They come in different sizes, grades, and specifications to meet specific project requirements. It is important to consult with suppliers or refer to official sources to ensure the correct ASTM standard is selected for a particular application.

Our ASTM Specification pipe and tube are locally sourced, developed and produced which means our customers are assured of the highest quality standards and a local, concerned customer service presence invested in the success of your project We manufacture our tubular products at several Chinese based facilities that produce high-quality tubular products with low-residuals in a wide range of strength levels with superior toughness.

Conversion from ASTM Standards

Engineering specification is also a language, and standard specifications for material and processes are defined differently in each country in the world. To a new designer, steel grades might seem easy, where 316 stainless steel is one material and cast iron another, but there are variations in each of these categories of metal. Rumors abound about people receiving poor quality steels from other jurisdictions. It leaves some designers wondering if there is something intrinsic in the official standards in other countries that can lead to these complaints.

International standards do not translate, metal-for-metal, the way words might translate. When converting from one standard to another, it’s almost impossible to find identical compositions for a given type of metal. The question becomes: can you find an equivalent? This can be confusing, as each named metal grade has its own chemistry and production guidelines.

For people without a materials background, these differences can make the purchase of foreign-made metal seem iffy, like ordering an inferior knockoff. However, the quality of the grades of steel are as good, country to country. Understanding what makes a steel standard or specification can help a North American business navigate overseas production.

Steel grades explained

Metal alloys are a mixture of different proportions of elements. A standard includes the chemistry, or “recipe” for the alloy, documenting what different elements should be melted into it. Specific instructions may also be given on melting temperature, cooling, and treatment.

Published standards also record the mechanical properties of a specified metal. If it has been made correctly, a metal should not only have the correct chemical analysis, but also perform within the correct range in mechanical tests.

Steels contain iron and carbon. Standards for each grade of steel specify the proportions by weight of each of these elements, as well as any additional elements alloyed with them. These additions may create different characteristics: for example, chromium is present in stainless steel to help prevent rusting.

In most consumer metal standards, the proportions of each element are given an acceptable range, rather than a precise number. For example, the ASTM 1050 grade steel is so named because it is approximately .50% carbon by weight. However, the tolerance for carbon percentage in the ASTM 1050 standard is .48-.55%. A similar Japanese specification sets carbon between .47-.53%, and allows for silicon and other trace elements, whereas the ASTM standard does not.

Steel specifications often provide ranges for carbon, manganese, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum, and none set identical ranges for each element. It is for this reason that steel standards from different organizations are not precise matches: the tolerances merely overlap. If one steel specifies less than .007% sulfur content, and another allows up to .040%, are they different steels? Small changes do not matter in many situations but may be relevant depending on the metal’s intended use.

It is not just chemistry, but also processing, that changes the behavior of a metal. Metal is crystalline and forms grain microstructures as it cools. Chemistry, melting, cooling, and heat treatment all can change the grain of the metal. This directly influences tensile strength, hardness, and brittleness. Therefore, steel specification may also include the production steps needed to create particular microstructures, including martensite, austenite, or ferrite grains.

When making a substitution between one standard and another, a skilled metallurgist or engineer will evaluate comparable grades based on mechanical properties. The engineer considers what the final product needs to do, and in what conditions. Using their understanding of chemistry, the expected working load, and knowledge of the conditions the product will work in, they can find a steel for the product’s requirements in any standard. All recognized steel standards generally have equivalent rigor, making this translation possible.

It is not a difference in published standards that are the source of poor-quality foreign metals.

Process of seamless pipe

Cold drawn seamless steel tube deformed process

Cold Drawn Seamless Mechanical Tubing (CDS) is a cold drawn 1018/1026 steel tube which offers uniform tolerances, enhanced machinability and increased strength and tolerances compared to hot-rolled products.

Cold drawn seamless steel tube deformed process

Cold drawn steel tube is with hot-rolled steel coil as raw material, and tandem cold rolling pickled to remove oxide scale, its finished rolling hard roll, rolling hard volumes due to the continuous cold deformation caused by cold hardening strength, hardness increased indicators declined tough plastic, stamping performance will deteriorate, which can only be used for simple deformation of the parts.

Rolling hard roll can be used as the raw material of the hot-dip galvanizing plant, hot dip galvanizing line set annealing line. Rolling hard roll weight is generally 6 to 13.5 tons, the coil diameter of 610mm.

Hot rolled seamless steel pipe deformed process

Hot-rolled seamless steel pipe production base deformation process can be summarized as three stages: perforation, extension and finishing.

Hot rolled seamless steel pipe deformed process

The main purpose of the perforation process is to become a solid round billet piercing hollow shell. Capillary in the specifications, accuracy and surface quality can not meet the requirements of the finished product, further improvements are needed to deform the metal through. The main purpose of the stretching machine is further reduced sectional view (main compression wall) for a larger axial extension, so that the capillary improved dimensional accuracy, surface quality and organizational performance.

After stretching machine rolled steel pipe shortage collectively need further molding mill in order to achieve the requirements of the finished pipe. Rolled steel due to pass in the method widely used in the production of seamless steel tubes.

So far, due to the method pass rolling steel can be divided into two categories: core pension without rolling rolling (hollow body rolling), and with the mandrel. Sizing machines, reducing mill and stretch reducing mill belonging to the hole without mandrel type continuous rolling mills are generally coffin. Its main purpose is to reduce the diameter of the deformation process or sizing get finished steel, the wall thickness of process control, can make thinning, thickening or nearly unchanged.

All the traditional hole-type rolling machine with mandrel belong to extend machine. The main purpose is to reduce the deformation process perforated capillary wall thickness and outer diameter roll passes in the deformation zone and the mandrel posed, for a larger axial extension. At the same time a certain improvement in the organization, performance, accuracy, surface quality.

The main manufacturing technology of seamless carbon steel pipe

1.Plug rolling production

The production equipment consists of punching machine, automatic pipe rolling machine, coiling machine, sizing machine and reducing machine. The round tube is inserted into the hollow of the thick-walled tube, and the axes of the two rollers form an oblique angle with the rolling line. In recent years, the inclination angle has increased from 6° to 12° to 13° to 17°, increasing the speed of the punch. When producing structural seamless pipe with a diameter greater than 250mm, secondary perforation is used to reduce the thickness of the hollow billet wall. New technologies have also been developed to enhance the perforation process and improve the quality of the capillary.

2. Continuous rolling production

The production equipment includes punching machine, continuous rolling mill, and tension reduction machine. The round billet is pierced into a hollow billet, then inserted into the mandrel, and continuously rolled by 7 to 9 two-roll mills. After rolling, the mandrel bar is taken out and reheated to reduce tension. In 2014, the annual output of 140mm continuous rolling mills is 0.4 to 600,000 tons, which is 2 to 4 times that of plug mills. The characteristics of this unit are suitable for the production of steel pipes with a diameter of 168mm or less. However, the equipment investment is large, the installed capacity is large, and the processing and manufacturing are complex.

3. Three-roll rolling production

Three-roll rolling production is mainly used to produce thick-walled seamless steel pipes with high dimensional accuracy. The wall thickness accuracy of the seamless steel pipe produced by this manufacturing process can reach plus or minus 5%, and the pipe accuracy is twice that of the seamless steel pipe produced by other methods. This manufacturing technique developed rapidly with the invention of the new three-high skew rolling mill in the 1960s. The new type of rolling mill is characterized by rapidly rotating the inlet rotary rack to change the expansion angle of the tail, thereby preventing the triangle from appearing at the tail, and expanding the ratio of the outer diameter to the wall thickness of the production varieties from 12 to 35, which can not only produce thin-walled seamless welded steel pipes , but also can improve production capacity.

4. Extrusion tube production

The peeled round base is first perforated or expanded, then heated by induction heating or a salt bath, coated with lubricant, and loaded into the extruder. The metal is squeezed into the pipe through the circular gap between the mandrel and the tip of the pen. This manufacturing process is mainly used for the production of superalloy tubes, specialty tubes, composite tubes and non-ferrous metal tubes. It has a wide range of production but low volumes. The production of extruded tubes has also grown in recent years due to improvements in die materials, lubricants and extrusion speeds.

5. Cold rolling (cold drawing) production

This manufacturing process is used to produce small-diameter precision-shaped thin-walled low-carbon steel pipes. It is characterized by the use of multi-stage cycle manufacturing technology. In the 1960s, it began to develop in the direction of high speed, multi-line, long stroke and long tube blank. In addition, small roller mills have also been developed, mainly for the production of precision tubes with a thickness of less than 1mm. The cold rolling equipment is complex, the tool processing is difficult, and the specification conversion is not flexible. And usually a combined process of cold rolling and cold drawing is used, that is, cold rolling is used to reduce the wall thickness to obtain larger deformation, and cold drawing technology is used to obtain various specifications.

Cut to Length

Before cutting pipe and tubing

No matter the material, measure the diameter of the pipe or tube to be cut to ensure that you use the right-size tube cutter for the job. When determining how to make a straight cut, use a tape measure and a pencil or other writing instrument to mark on the surface where you want to cut. If possible, mark around the circumference of a pipe, especially when cutting with a handsaw. Ensure that a cut is as straight as possible by securing the pipe with a vise, clamp, miter box or even duct tape to keep the length from shifting out of place while cutting.

After cutting pipe and tubing

  • Unless a cut is perfectly clean, you should expect to remove burrs from around the edge, especially after sawing.
  • Use a deburring tool to clean the edge after tube cutting.
  • You may opt to use a metal file on the cut of a metal pipe.
Cut to length

What is a seamless pipe used for?

Seamless steel pipe is regularly used in the transportation of fluids such as water, natural gas, waste and air. It is also regularly required in many high-pressure, high-corrosive environments such as in the oil & gas, power generation and pharmaceutical industries. Some common uses of seamless pipes include:

Alloying Elements

Commonly used alloying elements and their effects are listed in the table given below.

Alloying Elements Effect on the Properties
Chromium Increases Resistance to corrosion   and oxidation. Increases hardenability and wear resistance. Increases high   temperature strength.
Nickel Increases hardenability. Improves   toughness. Increases impact strength at low temperatures.
Molybdenum Increases hardenability, high   temperature hardness, and wear resistance. Enhances the effects of other   alloying elements. Eliminate temper brittleness in steels. Increases high   temperature strength.
Manganese Increases hardenability. Combines   with sulfur to reduce its adverse effects.
Vanadium Increases hardenability, high   temperature hardness, and wear resistance. Improves fatigue resistance.
Titanium Strongest carbide former. Added to   stainless steel to prevent precipitation of chromium carbide.
Silicon Removes oxygen in steel making.   Improves toughness. Increases hardness ability
Boron Increases hardenability. Produces   fine grain size.
Aluminum Forms nitride in nitriding steels.   Produces fine grain size in casting. Removes oxygen in steel melting.
Cobalt Increases heat and wear   resistance.
Tungsten Increases hardness at elevated   temperatures. Refines grain size.

【H】 Ceramic lined pipe

Ceramic lined pipe is made through self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) technique.

【H】 Cast basalt lined steel pipe

Cast basalt lined steel pipe is composed by lined with cast basalt pipe, outside steel pipe and cement mortar filling between the two layers.

【H】 Ceramic Tile Lined Pipes

Ceramic tile lined pipes have very uniform coating of specially formulated ceramic material that is affixed to the inner of the pipe.

【H】 Rare earth alloy wear-resistant pipe

The material of the rare earth alloy wear-resistant pipe is ZG40CrMnMoNiSiRe, which is also the grade of rare earth alloy steel.

【H】 Tubes Erosion Shields

Tubes Erosion Shields are used to protect boiler tubing from the highly erosive effects of high temperatures and pressures thereby greatly extending tube life.

【H】 ASTM A213 T91 Alloy Tube

The ASTM A213 T91 seamless tubes are primarily used for boiler, superheater, and heat-exchanger.